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Miscellaneous Facts and Figures

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Some Interesting Facts & Figures on Global Animal Production - From " Animal Agriculture And Global Food Supply", July 1999; Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) .

Composition of Animal Manures  (information from various sources )

Human versus Animals - Comparison of Waste Properties(July, 2001).  Ron Fleming and Marcy Ford - Ridgetown College, Univ. of Guelph - The following table is based on the information from design manuals for human waste treatment and animal manure production. It is an attempt to compare production on an equal footing, and includes waste generated, as well as other parameters typically of concern due to potential environmental impacts. 

Daily Production of Waste Constituents for Dairy Cattle, Beef Cattle, Laying Hens, Broiler Chickens, Feeder Pigs, and Humans    
     (all calculations were rounded to two significant figures)       n/a: information not available

  Units Dairy 
Cow
Beef
Feeder
Feeder
Pig
Paying
Hen
Broiler
Chicken
Human
typical weights kg  590  295  52  1.6  0.7  63

Volume of manure/ wastewater
(including dilution
liquid)

68.7  21.3  5.8  0.2  0.07  227
Total Solids  7100  2500  570  26  15  160
BOD5*  g  940  470  160  5.3  n/a  50
Total Nitrogen  g  260  100  27  1.3  0.77  9.1
Total Phosphorus 55  27  9.4  0.48  0.21  1.8

Total coliform
bacteria

number  6.5x1012  1.8x1011  2.3x1010  1.8x109  n/a  2.3x1011

* BOD5 refers to the 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand which is a measure of the organic matter in the waste

 

 Excerpted from: Code of Practice (for the safe and economic handling of animal manures).   
Alberta Agriculture, Food &Rural Development publication Agdex 400/27-2. 1995.

Appendix A - Nutrient Content of Livestock Manures
      Explanation of Appendix A:
 

Total N:

Includes both mineral (nitrate and ammonium nitrogen) and organic nitrogen. The organic portion is not available to the plant without further microbial mineralization into available nitrogen.

Available N:

This is the portion of the total nitrogen that is in the mineral usually Ammonium), plant available form at the time of application.

Crop N:

This is an estimate of the available nitrogen plus the portion of the organic nitrogen that is mineralized over the growing season. Estimated volatilization losses are subtracted from the sum of available plus mineralized nitrogen to give the Crop N.

P2O5

Phosphorus is expressed as phosphate equivalent in lbs/ton (kg/tonne) of manure because phosphorus exists in both mineral and organic form. Phosphate is contained mostly in the solids portion of the manure so mixing of the manure is necessary for uniformity of phosphate content.

K2O

Potassium is expressed as lb. of potash/ton (kg/tonne) of manure.

APPENDIX A-1: Manure Nutrient Content for Various Livestock Species*
*Based on averages form a variety of sources. Actual farm values may vary greatly.

Type of Livestock

Moisture
%

Total
N%

Total N

Available N

Crop N

P2O5

K2O

lbs/
ton

kg/
tonne

lbs/
ton

kg/
tonne

lbs/
ton

kg/
tonne

lbs
/ton

kg/
tonne

lbs/
ton

kg/
tonne

Beef

Open Lot

50

0.9

17

8.7

4.4

2.2

5.1

26

11

5.6

16

8.2

Paved

65

0.7

13

6.6

5

2.6

4.4

2.3

4

2

9

4.6

Closed

92

0.5

9

4.6

3.9

2

3.3

1.7

4

2

10

5.1

Dairy

Free Stall

92

0.5

9

4.6

4.1

2.1

3.7

1.9

4

2

10

5.1

Tie Stall

80

0.6

11

5.6

4.6

2.3

4.2

2.1

4

2

10

5.1

Hogs

Farrow-finish

96

0.4

7

3.6

3.2

1.6

3

1.5

5

2.6

4

2

Farrow-wean

96

0.4

7

3.6

3.2

1.6

3

1.5

5

2.6

4

2

Feeder

96

0.4

7

3.6

3.2

1.6

3

1.5

5

2.6

4

2

Poultry

Layers (solid)

60

1.6

32

16

25

13

22

11

56

29

20

10

Layers (liquid)

90

1

19

9.8

15

7.5

13

6.6

34

17

12

6.1

Broilers

35

1.9

37

19

25

13

21

11

30

15

20

10

Breeders

35

2

39

20

26

13

23

12

60

31

20

10

Turkey

Hens

35

1.9

37

19

25

13

21

11

30

15

20

10

Toms

35

1.9

37

19

25

13

21

11

30

15

20

10

Broilers

35

1.9

37

19

25

13

21

11

30

15

20

10

Horse

   

0.6

12

6.1

6

3.1

5.7

2.9

6

3.1

12

6.1

Mink

   

1.8

36

18

18

9.2

17

8.7

50

26

40

20

Fox

   

0.4

8

4.1

4

2

3.8

1.9

4

2

2

1

Rabbit

   

0.5

10

5.1

4.2

2.1

4.6

2.4

24

12

10

5.1

Veal

   

0.4

7.6

3.9

3.8

1.9

4

2

10

5.1

7

3.8

Elk

   

0.7

13

6.6

3.9

2

4.5

2.3

10

5.1

12

6.1

Bison

   

0.7

13

6.6

3.9

2

4.5

2.3

10

5.1

12

6.1

Sheep

Ewes

50

0.7

14

7.1

5.6

2.9

5.3

2.7

9

4.6

25

13

Lambs

50

0.7

14

7.1

5.6

2.9

5.3

2.7

9

4.6

25

13

 


Approximate nutrient content of animal manure - Alberta Agriculture, Food & Rural Development

    Nutrient (lb/ton raw waste)
Type of manure Waste handling system Dry matter (%) N available* Total N** P2O5 K2O
Swine Without bedding 18 6 10 9 8
With bedding 18 5 8 7 7
Beef Cattle Without bedding 15 4 11 7 10
With bedding 50 8 21 18 2
Dairy Cattle Without bedding 18 4 9 4 10
With bedding 21 5 9 4 10
Poultry Without bedding 45 26 33 48 34
With bedding 75 36 56 45 34
  Deep pit (compost) 76 44 68 64 45

Source: Sutton et al. Purdue Univ. 1D-1 01 (1975).
* Primarily ammonium N which is available to the plant during the growing season.
* Ammonium N plus slow releasing organic N.


Swine Manure as a Fertilizer Source- North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service - Publication AG-439-4; Revised June 1993 (MOC)

Table 1. Nutrient Composition of Swine Manure
Manure Type Total
N
Ammonium
NH4- N
Phosphorus
P2O5
Potassium
K2O
lb/ton
Fresh 12 7 9 9
Scraped1 13 7 12 9
lb/1,000 gallons
Liquid slurry2 31 19 22 17
Anaerobic lagoon sludge 22 6 49 7
lb/acre-inch
Anaerobic lagoon liquid 136 111 53 133
1Collected within 1 week.
2Six to 12 months accumulation of manure, urine, and excess water usage; does not include fresh water for flushing or lot runoff.
Source: Abridged from North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual.
Table 2. Secondary and Micronutrient Content of Swine Manures
Manure Type Ca Mg S Na Fe Mn B Mo Zn Cu
lb/ton
Fresh 7.9 1.7 1.8 1.6 0.39 0.04 0.074 0.00066 0.12 0.029
Paved lot scraped 12.0 2.3 2.2 1.6 1.03 0.19 0.015 0.00007 0.35 0.15
lb/1,000 gallons
Liquid slurry 8.6 2.9 4.7 3.7 0.69 0.15 0.069 0.0011 0.39 0.11
Lagoon sludge 15.8 4.5 8.3 2.9 1.8 0.28 0.023 0.0095 0.67 0.23
lb/acre-inch
Lagoon liquid 25.5 8.3 10.0 57.7 2.4 0.34 0.18 0.0045 1.5 0.3
Source: Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, NCSU.

 

Volumes & Amounts of Manure Produced by Livestock  (Information from various sources)

Design and Management of Anaerobic Lagoons in Iowa for Animal Manure Storage and Treatment (1995) - [pdf]- Cooperative Extension Service, Iowa State University

Table 2. Manure and solids production by different types of animals (from above pdf file)

Animal Type  Average  Weight  (lb.) Total Manure Production
(cu. ft./day)
Total Solids Production  
(lb./day)
 Volatile Solids Production (lb./day)
Swine 
  Nursery pig
  Growing pig
  Finishing pig
  Gestation sow
  Sow and litter
  Boar
35
65
150
275
375
350
0.04
0.07
0.16
0.15
0.36
0.19
0.39
0.72
1.65
0.82
2.05
1.04
0.30
0.55
1.28
0.66
1.64
0.84
Cattle
  Dairy
  Beef
1,000
1,000
1.39
0.95
12.00
8.50
10.00
7.20
Poultry
  Layers
  Broilers
4
2
0.0035
0.0022
0.064
0.044
0.048
0.034
Data Source: ASAE Standards D384.1, 1993

 

Production and Characteristics of Swine Manure [34 KB pdf]- D.W. Hamilton,  W.G. Luce,  A.D. Heald, Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service - Table 1 (below) shows the daily production of manure as it is excreted by the animal. This table was calculated using a corn-based ration. Notice how the manure characteristics change as the diet changes for different animals in different stages of life. Manure characteristics are broken down into four broad categories: quantity, organic matter, plant nutrients, and salts. 

 

Confined Feeding Program Technical Guidance AW-1 - Pork Producers (USA) - To provide information used in the review process for applications submitted to the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) for approval to construct and/or operate a confined feeding operation as defined by the Confined Feeding Control Law; and to provide guidance on the proper operation of a confined feeding operation. 
Animal Manure Production. The following values should be used in calculating the manure produced when determining the minimum storage capacity needed for manure storage structures. If an unusual amount of drinking water spillage or clean-up water is involved, additional storage capacity may be necessary and should be provided. See example A-5, a copy is available in the IDEM-OSHWM file room.  

   SOLID SYSTEM
 cubic ft/day
 LIQUID SYSTEM
 cubic ft/day
 SWINE
   Nursery Pig  .02  .05
   Grower/Finishing  .08  .18
   Farrowing (S&L)  .21  .51
   Breeding/Gestation  .09  .16
 DAIRY
   Calf  .13  .26
   Heifer  .57  1.10
   Cow  1.83  2.20
   Veal Calf  .10  .15
 BEEF
   Feeder Calf  .32  .57
   Fattening Cattle  .54  1.14
   Mature Cow  .59  1.32
 POULTRY
   Broiler  .001  .004
   Pullet  .001  .004
   Layer  .002  .010
   Turkey  .003  .011
   Duck  .003  .011

 


Animal Manure Management - NRCS/RCA Issue Brief 7, Dec. 1995

How much manure do different types of livestock produce?

(Lbs/day/1000-lb animal unit)

Livestock type Total manure Nitrogen Phosphorus
Beef1 59.1 0.31 0.11
Dairy2 80.0 0.45 0.07
Hogs and Pigs3 63.1 0.42 0.16
Chickens (layers) 60.5 0.83 0.31
Chickens (broilers) 80.0 1.10 0.34
Turkeys 43.6 0.74 0.28
1High Forage diet.     2Lactating Cow.     3Grower.
  Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service, Agricultural Waste Management Handbook (1992).

Recoverable manure, by livestock type (Percent)
 
Animal type Natural Resources Conservation Service Region
West South Central South East Midwest Northern Plains
Beef (grazing) 5 7 10 10 10 5
Beef (feeder) 85 80 75 85 75 80
Dairy (milker) 80 70 60 80 80 80
Dairy (other) 75 65 50 70 60 70
Hogs and pigs 85 80 65 80 70 75
Layers 90 90 90 95 95 95
Broilers 90 90 95 95 95 95
Turkeys 65 80 85 95 70 75
Sheep 35 35 50 15 35 30
Source: USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, State animal manure survey.

 

Manure, Fertilizer and Pesticide Management in Canada. Results of the 1995 Farm Inputs Management Survey (FIMS) - Policy Branch, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada - In December 1995, Statistics Canada, in cooperation with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, conducted the Farm Inputs Management Survey (FIMS). The survey was designed to contribute to the work being done on the Inputs Management component of the Farm Resource Management Indicator. This indicator forms part of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada's Agri-Environmental Indicator Project.

The Agronomics of Manure Use for Crop Production - K.L. Wells, Extension Soils Specialist, Dept of Plant & Soil Sciences, Univ. of Kentucky - Nitrogen in manure - About 1/2 N in most animal manure is present in the soluble form as urea, with the remaining half as insoluble organic compounds. In poultry manure, about 1/2 the organic N becomes available within a year following application. Together with the soluble N, this can represent 65% to 75% of the total N available to the following crop. There are also indications that 60% to 65% of the total N in swine manure is available, following application and incorporation. pdf version (389 KB)

Feedlots Point Source Category Study (EPA-821-R-99-002, January 1999) - To gather preliminary information on waste characteristics and waste handling technologies and practices in the area of animal feeding operations, environmental impacts that may be attributed to these operations, and the industry's size structure, geographic distribution, and economic status.   Feedlot Industry Sector Profile [740K pdf]; includes livestock waste characteristics. 

Poultry Manure as a Fertilizer Source (Pub AG-439-5; May 1993) - J.P. Zublena, Extension Soil Science Specialist; J.C. Barker, Extension Agricultural Engineering Specialist; and T.A. Carter, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service - nutrient composition and availability of poultry manure.

Swine Manure Production and Nutrient Content (2003) [220 KB pdf]; John P. Chastain, James J. Camberato, John E. Albrecht, and Jesse Adams, III, Clemson Univ., South Carolina - daily manure production volumes for different swine operations and manure handling systems, nutrient content of swine manure - South Carolina Confined Animal Manure Managers Certification Program.

Assessment of the Potential for Livestock and Poultry Manure to Provide the Nutrients Removed by Crops and Forages in Kentucky [Pub IP-56]- by the Animal Waste Focus Group1 of the Environmental and Natural Resources Issues Task Force  - a comparison of total recoverable manure nutrients from livestock and poultry and total nutrients removed by harvested crops and grazed forages for each county in Kentucky.

Q. Does a farm with 10,000 hogs produce as much waste as a city of 40,000 people ? [taken from FAQS, NC State University]

RESPONSE: Since animal manure and human sewage are composed of many different compounds and parameters, no single number can accurately represent the human population equivalent of swine. Each parameter represents a different equivalency factor, therefore a single number, without qualification, is irrelevant.  For example, one farm with 10,000 hogs produces the same volume of waste as a population of 550 people. This statistic highlights the fact that people use significant quantities of water for showers, cooking, dishwashing, laundry, etc which becomes wastewater when mixed with sewage.    However, because of this water dilution, human sewage is less concentrated than animal waste. On the basis of organics, one farm with 10,000 hogs produces as much BOD as a population of 46,000 people. On the basis of nutrients, one farm with 10,000 hogs produces as much nitrogen and phosphorus as a population of 25,000 people. On the basis of bacteria, one farm with 10,000 hogs produces as much fecal coliform bacteria as a population of 2,300 people.    These analyses compare the amount of unrecycled wastes leaving a residence with those leaving a hog production facility. They do not take into account collection and treatment processes or the fact that cities have other sources of waste from businesses and industries besides residential sewage.    [011016]

Livestock Manure Production Rates and Nutrient Content [96 KB pdf]- James C. Barker, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, NCSU; S. C. Hodges, Soil Science, NCSU; F. R. Walls, North Carolina Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services - Excellent information (North Carolina) on properties/characteristics of various types of livestock manures (animal source), and on manures from various types of storage and handling practices (piled, slurry, sludge, lagoons).

Comparison of storage, treatment, utilization, and disposal systems for human and livestock wastes (Nov. 2002) [2084 KB pdf]. Ron Fleming, and Marcy Ford, Ridgetown College, - U. of Guelph, Ridgetown, ON,  N0P 2C0 - The purpose of this report is to briefly describe the main systems in use today in Ontario (and in many other regions) and to put into perspective some of the features of the various systems used for human wastes and livestock manure.  

Animal Manure Data Sheet (EB1719) Cooperative Extension, Washington State University - Ronald E. Hermanson, P.E. and Prasanta K. Kalita;  Table 1 - Livestock manure production and properties;  Table 2 - Fertilizer nutrients in fresh manure Source: Adapted from American Society of Agricultural Engineers ASAE D384.1 and Midwest Plan Service MWPS-18  [Tables in pdf format 45 KB] (1994).

Using Composted Poultry Manure (Litter) in Mulched Vegetable Production. U. of Florida Cooperative Extension Service. See Table 1.  Average nutrient composition of poultry manures.

Phosphate recovery from animal manure: the possibilities in the Netherlands [396 KB pdf] (Nov. 1998) Van Ruiten Adviesbureau/Project bureau BMA, for CEEP  - purpose of the study is to gain an insight into the current level of knowledge and state of affairs concerning the amount of phosphate in animal manure and the available processing techniques, experience and prospects for the recovery of phosphate from manure. The subject is treated in terms of the types of manure produced by four categories of animals: cattle, veal calves, pigs and chickens. Good information on nutrient content in various livestock manures, and separation efficiencies.

  Taken from: Livestock Pathogens: a Natural Occurrence - FACT SHEET #10, Spring 2004, Manitoba Agriculture & Food
 
 
The Lowdown on Manure Production in Ontario. Ken McEwan, Ridgetown College, U. of Guelph (July 2003) 

Table 1. Tillable Acreage and Application of Liquid and Solid Manure in Six Counties or Regions of Ontario

Area Name Total Tillable Area (Acres) Area Under Liquid Manure
(% of Tillable Land)
Area Under Solid Manure
(% of Tillable Land)
Niagara
167,735
 4.8
15.8
Oxford
376,111
11.6
12.3
Wellington
387,954
9.0
20.5
Perth
445,719
12.3
16.9
Huron
615,522
7.0
12.9
Bruce
449,159
3.5
21.3
 

 

Anaerobic Digestion of Animal Wastes: Factors to Consider (Farm Energy Technical Note)- John Balsam,National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service - This publication provides an introduction to the technology, with discussion of the digestion process; production, uses, and risks of bio-gas; digester design considerations; and system costs. Useful tables and further resources are included [pdf version 232 KB].

On-Farm Biogas Production and Utilization for South Carolina Livestock and Poultry Operations (1999) [151 KB pdf] John P. Chastain, Dale E. Linvill, and Francis J. Wolak, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Clemson University - Data was reviewed relating to the following factors that influence digester performance: temperature, loading rate, ammonia toxicity, mixing, biogas production from intermittently mixed reactors operated at low temperatures, and biogas production from covered lagoon digesters (CLD).
 
PHYLLIS database for biomass and waste.  Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.  - PHYLLIS is a database, containing information on the composition of biomass and waste. Phyllis enables you to make analysis data of individual biomass or waste materials available and offers you the possibility to obtain the average composition of any combination of groups and/or subgroups. e.g. - Try entering "manure" into the search engine .
 

Agricultural Statistics

Statistics Canada  - Statistics Canada: Agriculture   -
      Tables by Subject  

2001 Canadian Census;   2001 Census of Agriculture;  Canadian farm operations in the 21st century.

2006 Canadian Census2006 Census of Agriculture

National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA

Manure Management in Canada - Farm environmental management in Canada - Statscan 2004, Vol.1(2) - Martin S. Beaulieu - information on various characteristics of manure management as practised on Canadian farms. Analysis is based on results of the 2001 Farm Environmental Management Survey (FEMS) and discussion focuses mainly on farms raising some level of livestock, irrespective of the major commodities produced. View Full Report (June, 2004) [342 KB PDF].

Canadian Livestock estimates (Statscan, Jan. 1, 2006).The national cattle herd has declined for the first time in three years in the wake of the reopening of the American border to Canadian cattle, easing the situation for farmers who had to feed record numbers of animals.

A Geographical Profile of Manure Production in Canada - Statistics Canada - Catalog No.: 16F0025XIB (Feb. 20, 2001) - This publication is a collection of five annotated maps and graphs that describe the geographic distribution of manure production in Canada by river basin area. The amount of manure produced is estimated along with some of the major substances found in manure: (i) nitrogen, (ii) phosphorus, (iii) total coliform bacteria and (iv) fecal coliform bacteria; Profiles manure production, but does not examine the positive or negative environmental impacts of the quantities produced; excellent maps at different scales.  PDF versions available.

Distribution and Concentration of Canadian Livestock [1072 KB pdf] (April 2001) Agriculture & Rural Working Paper # 47.Martin S. Beaulieu, Frédéric Bédard, & Pierre Lanciault, StatsCan, Ottawa ON - study gives a ‘snapshot’ of where the larger concentrations of livestock and poultry were at the time of the Census of Agriculture in May 1996. Livestock concentrations (or densities) were analysed in terms of the total livestock population, irrespective of the different types of animals raised.

Manure storage in Canada  Vol. 1(1) (2003) [727 KB pdf]Statistics Canada - article presents various characteristics of the manure storage systems on Canadian farms, with particular attention to the dairy, beef and hog sectors. The analysis presented in this document is based on results from the 2001 Farm Environmental Management Survey (FEMS). This analysis focuses mainly on farms raising livestock, regardless of the major commodity produced on the farm.

Regional Nutrient Balances, Int'l Plant Nutrition Institute. The statistics presented here on N, P, and K contained in fertilizers, manures and crops provide a rough estimate of regional nutrient balances.

Manure, Fertilizer and Pesticide Management in Canada. Robert Koroluk, Farm Income & Quantitative Analysis,   AAFC - purpose of this report is to provide more detailed agri-environmental information on a regional and sectoral basis about the practices used for managing farm inputs. Complete Report [1230 KB pdf]. 

 

 

 

 

Bruce T. Bowman, Archivist
Last Updated: Thursday, November 10, 2016 02:27:14 PM