Greenhouse Gas Emissions and
GHGs and Manure Management
Government of Canada Web sites related to Climate Change
Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Agricultural Land on Agricultural Land-Use Suitability: Spring Seeded Small Grains on the Prairies(Feb. 2008) (AAFC & Env. Canada) - PDF version of Powerpoint presentation)
Climate Change Central (Alberta), Suite 100, 999-8th St. S.W., Calgary, AB T2R1J5; public-private partnership that promotes the development of innovative responses to global climate change and its impacts. ceased operations in June 2014.
Manure Management and Greenhouse Gases - Things You Need To Know(Agriculture and Rural Development) - In Alberta, the agricultural industry emits about nine percent of the total provincial GHG emissions (Environment Canada, 2003). Primarily, agricultural sources of GHGs originate from livestock and fertilizer sectors. According to the 2001 GHG Emissions Inventory for Alberta Agriculture, methane emissions from manure accounts for 9% and livestock methane emissions are approximately 28% of the total GHG emissions in Alberta (AAFRD, 2003).
Northern Climate Exchange (NCE) (Yukon)
CARBON SEQUESTRATION BY AGRICULTURAL SOIL (30 Jan. 2001). Frédéric Forge, Science and Technology Division, Parliamentary Res. Branch. This document focuses on the role of agricultural soil in CO2 emissions. The first part describes the process of soil carbon sequestration and how that process can help reduce agricultural CO2 emissions. The second part looks at ways the agriculture industry can create “carbon sinks.”
Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research Network Archives (C-CIARN). The goal of C-CIARN Agriculture is to build a network of representatives from agri-food, research, and policy communities to promote and facilitate research on climate impacts, vulnerabilities, risks, and adaptation for agriculture. See also: C-CIARN Agriculture; Documents
Resource Catalog of Information on Agricultural Best Management Practices That Positively Influence Climate Change [274 KB pdf]. Soil Conservation Canada; catalog of where to find information on agricultural practices as they relate to climate change. This publication is the result of a two-month literature search that compiled extension and research information for producers to help them better understand climate change and how the adoption of best management practices can positively affect our climate. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Program; Fact Sheets
The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol). The most widely used international accounting tool for government and business leaders to understand, quantify, and manage greenhouse gas emissions. The GHG Protocol, a decade-long partnership between the World Resources Institute and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, is working with businesses, governments, and environmental groups around the world to build a new generation of credible and effective programs for tackling climate change.
No-till only increases N2O emissions in poorly-aerated soils (2008). Soil & Tillage Res. 101: 97–100. Philippe Rochette, AAFC, Québec City, QC, Canada G1V 2J3. Denitrification rates are often greater in no-till than in tilled soils and net soil-surface ghg emissions could be increased by enhanced soil N2O emissions following adoption of no-till. Results suggest that the impact of no-till on N2O emissions is small in well-aerated soils but most often positive in soils where aeration is reduced by conditions or properties restricting drainage.
Nitrous Oxide Emissions Respond Differently to No-Till in a Loam and a Heavy Clay Soil (2008). Philippe Rochette, Denis A. Angers, Martin H. Chantigny, Normand Bertrand - Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Québec City, QC, Canada, G1V2J3. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:1363-1369 (2008). Annual emissions of N2O were exceptionally high in the heavy clay soil, varying from 12 to 45 kg N2O-N ha–1 during the 3 yr of the study. Such high emissions were probably not associated with fertilizer N inputs but rather with denitrification sustained by the decomposition of large soil organic matter stocks (192 Mg C ha–1 in the top 0.5 m). On average, NT more than doubled N2O emissions compared with MP in the heavy clay soil.
Canadian Economic and Emissions Model for Agriculture (Version 1). This series of three Technical Reports which document an integrated agro-ecological economic modelling system that can be used to simultaneously assess the economic and the greenhouse gas emission impacts of agricultural policies at regional and national levels. The model provides a quantitative tool which can contribute to policy analysis related to Canada's Kyoto commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Analysis Of Best Management Practices And Emission Inventory Of Agricultural Sources In The Lower Fraser Valley (2004) [pdf]. Levelton Consultants Ltd., Richmond, B.C. This study has been commissioned to: 1) Develop an updated and comprehensive emissions inventory for the agricultural sector in the Lower Fraser Valley; and 2) Review existing best management practices (BMPs) for agricultural sources of emissions and identify the preferred BMPs for application in the Lower Fraser Valley. [2011-03-29]
Assessing carbon stocks and modelling win–win scenarios of carbon sequestration through land-use changes (FAO Rome 2004) [2357 KB pdf]. Raul Ponce-Hernandez, Trent University, Ontario; objective is to investigate the win–win options to address poverty alleviation, food security and sustainable management of natural resources by enhancing land productivity through diversification of agricultural systems, soil fertility management and C sequestration in poor rural areas, thereby creating synergies among the Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the Convention on Climate Change (CCC) and the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD); Report presents a methodology to assess the stocks of C pools both above ground and below ground under various land-use systems, the status of their biodiversity and that of land degradation.
Climate Change Funding Initiative in Agriculture (CCFIA)
Activities Report, 2000-2001.
Canadian Agri-Food Research Council (CARC) and Agriculture and
Agri-Food Canada - Four goals: 1. Increased Canadian human
resource research capacity and expertise in climate change issues in
agriculture; 2. Research on knowledge gaps in agricultural
greenhouse gas emissions; 3. Development of industry best practices
and technology to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emissions and
increase carbon sequestration potential of agricultural soils; 4.
Enhanced awareness and improved communication on climate change.
Currently funding 15 research projects.
Final Program and Research Report for Climate Change Funding Initiative in Agriculture (CCFIA) [2634 KB pdf]
An Assessment of the Opportunities and Challenges of a Bio-Based Economy for Agriculture and Food Research in Canada (2003) [766 KB PDF]; Prepared for Canadian Agri-Food Research Council. The replacement of petrochemical-based industrial chemicals with chemicals derived from renewable biological materials is a very worthy and alluring objective. The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG), the lessening of dependence on non-renewable resources, the increase in markets for farm products, and the potential for new industries in widely distributed geographic locations across the nation are all outcomes which are attractive to many Canadians.
Climate Change and Greenhouse gas awareness study [520 KB pdf] (Mar. 2003). Pierre Aubin, Genevieve Auger and Claude Perreault, Research and Analysis Directorate, Economic and Industry Analysis Division (EIAD), Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada. This study establishes a baseline measurement that will be used to evaluate the success of the awareness and public education effort towards climate change and GHG. Results of this study will also enhance the development of effective programs and policies therefore contributing to the effort of the agriculture sector to reduce its share of GHG emissions.
Governments as Participants in International Markets for Greenhouse Gas Commodities [396 KB pdf] (Draft, Sept. 2003). Prepared by Natsource LLC for Electric Power Research Inst., The Int. Energy Agency, Int. Emissions Trading Assoc., and institut du développement durable et des relations internationales. Governments will likely be significant players in the international market to address rising emissions not covered by trading programs and a variety of uncertainties regarding countries’ future emissions and the effectiveness of policies and measures. This paper examines the role and potential impacts of governments as buyers in GHG markets.
Climate Change: We are at Risk (June 2003) [pdf version, 652KB]. Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry (FINAL REPORT). The Honourable Donald Oliver, Q.C., Chair, The Honourable John Wiebe, Deputy Chair. Historically, changes in climate have occurred at a slow enough pace that humanity has been able to adapt to them without major disruptions. There is strong evidence, however, that climate change will accelerate during the coming century at rates beyond our historical ability to adapt; includes 7 recommendations.
A Basis for Greenhouse Gas Trading in Agriculture [396 KB pdf]. Discussion Paper C3–01(a), April 30, 2002. Climate Change Central, Alberta. A number of policy uncertainties remain including; GHG policy in Canada, definition of removal credits, bankability, credit for early action, future liability of stored carbon and possible regulation of the agriculture sector, ownership of the stored carbon and permanence of removals.
Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: A Canadian Perspective (Oct. 2002) (PDF version 4598 KB). Natural Resources Canada, 601 Booth St., Ottawa, ON K1A 0E8 - Appropriate adaptations have the potential to greatly reduce the overall vulnerability of agriculture to climate change. These adaptations will require the participation of several different groups, including individual producers, government organizations, the agri-food industry and research institutions.
Climate Science Agenda For Canada (2002-2012)[120 KB pdf] (Mar. 31, 2002). Prepared for Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada (MSC, EC) and Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences (CFCAS) - Canadian policies related to climate change have a critical urgency in the short-term but must be developed in the longer-term context..... variations of climate from season to season and year to year can be more effectively responded to in agriculture, water management, energy, transportation and other sectors, on the basis of more reliable science based predictions.
Feeding Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Pigs [1047 KB pdf]. Ron Ball, U. of Alberta; Presentation at Climate Change Strategy in the Hog Industry, Hull, Dec. 9, 2002 - GHG Mitigation Approaches in Pigs; • Improve growth rate and feed conversion by diet, genetic selection and feed additives; • Reduce dietary protein by supplementing with amino acids or improving protein digestibility; • Reduce dietary non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) by diet change and addition of enzymes and feed additives.
Adaptation To Climate Change In Agriculture: Evaluation Of Options (2001) [1042 KB pdf] (ISBN 0-88955-520-6). A. Holly Dolan, Barry Smit, Mark W. Skinner, Ben Bradshaw, Chris R. Bryant - Dept of Geography, U. of Guelph (Occasional Paper No. 26) - The main purpose of this report is to develop a framework to consistently and systematically evaluate adaptation options in agriculture to climate change. It is intended to inform stakeholders in federal and provincial agencies, the research community, the agriculture and agri-food industry, farm organizations, and the general public about the evaluation of adaptation measures available in agriculture to deal with climate-related risks.
Development of a Farm-Level Greenhouse Gas Assessment: Identification of Knowledge Gaps and Development of a Science Plan [1503 KB pdf] (31 August 2003). (AARI Project Number 2001J204) - Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development & U. of Alberta - in depth review of the scientific literature was initiated to gather, evaluate and synthesize agricultural GHG research for the Prairie region.
Measurements Of Ground Level Air Pollution In Central Ontario By Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy - M.Sc. Thesis (2001) [3637 KB pdf]. Denise Louise McMaster, Environmental & Life Sciences Program, Trent University, Peterborough, ON - Ground level concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were investigated in Peterborough, Ontario using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Ground level concentrations of ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) have also been investigated. The seasonal variation and the influence of wind direction on the ground level concentrations of these pollutants has been examined and provided insight to the factors affecting pollutant concentration and sources of air pollution in central Ontario.
Nitrous Oxide Flux from Solid Dairy Manure in Storage as Affected by Water Content and Redox Potential. J Env. Qual 29:630-638 (2000) [pdf]. H. A. Brown, C. Wagner-Riddle & G. W. Thurtell, U. of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada. Study conducted on solid dairy manure to determine potential for N2O emission during storage. A lab flow-through chamber & tunable diode laser analyzer were employed to continuously quantify the N2O flux in a temp.-controlled environment. Water, NO3-N and NH4-N contents and redox potential were monitored. Experiment 1: manure samples collected from 3 layers near the surface of the pile & incubated at 22°C for 20 d. Mean daily N2O-N fluxes - 0 & 0.33 g N m–2 d–1, and N2O was only generated in samples from the top two layers of the pile. Experiment 2: samples from the 30- to 45-cm depth were adjusted by amendment with chopped straw to 70, 75, and 80% water content (WC). These samples showed less variable fluxes and produced 2x N2O-N as the unamended samples. Levels of straw-amendment had no significant effect on N2O emissions. Combined results - fluxes were highest at 55 to 70% WC and 150 to 250 mV Eh. N2O emission was limited by low NO3-N levels in samples with high WC and low Eh. Increasing WC and decreasing Eh with depth and increasing levels of NO3 in the surface layer over time revealed that the exterior of solid manure piles is crucial to the flux of N2O.
Options Report: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Canadian Agriculture (2000) [820 KB PDF]- Agriculture and Agri-Food Climate Change Table (Publication #: 2028/E, Jan. 2000). In response to the Kyoto Protocol, Canada’s First Ministers asked their Environment and Energy Ministers to develop a comprehensive national strategy to reduce Canadian greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Ministers created the National Climate Change Secretariat who established 16 Issue Tables to examine options for reducing Canada’s GHG emissions. In their Options Reports, the Tables identified, analyzed and evaluated policy options for GHG reduction in their sectors. This document is the Options Report for the Agriculture and Agri-Food Table.
The Relevance And Potential Impact Of Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms For The Canadian Agriculture And Agri-Food Sector (March 2000) (324 KB pdf). Erik Haites, Margaree Consultants Inc.; J.C. Giraldez, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Pub# 2033/E; ISBN # 0-662-28732-0; This study was commissioned by AAFC to assess, qualitatively, the relevance and potential impact of an international tradeable permit system, the Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation in the likely event that the Canadian agriculture and agri-food sector has to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This study resulted in two reports: " The Relevance and Potential Impact of Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms for the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food Sector" and "Possible Domestic Policies to Manage Greenhouse Gas Emissions."
Agriculture and Agri-Food Climate Change Foundation Paper, Spring 1999 [341 KB]. The purpose of this document was to provide the Agriculture and Agri-Food Climate Change Issue Table with background information on climate change issues and agriculture. The document reflects available knowledge and literature at the time of writing.
The Health of our Air (1999) [3259 KB pdf]. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Of the N consumed by livestock in feed, as much as 78% is excreted in urine and feces. In 1 year, for example, a dairy cow may excrete as much as 100 kg N or more. Consequently, animal manure contains large amounts of N; in Canada, the N excreted each year by livestock may approach the amount of N applied as fertilizer......The amount of N2O emitted from manured soils depends on method and rate of application, type of manure, and soil properties. One study suggests that liquid manure applied in bands may produce more N2O than manure applied uniformly on the soil surface.
Estimates of Emissions: Reducing nitrous oxide emissions. (1999). The Health of our Air [3259 KB pdf]. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; Much of the N2O emitted from farmland is produced when excess NO3 in soil undergoes denitrification, either on farmland or after it is leached away. Farmers can reduce these emissions by preventing build-up of NO3 or avoiding soil conditions that favour denitrification. Some N2O is also emitted when NH4 is converted to NO3 (nitrification). Adding less NH4 or slowing the rate of nitrification can reduce emissions from this source.
Agriculture and Climate Change: A Prairie Perspective (1997)
[194 KB pdf]. Int'l. Inst. for Sustainable Development
& Env. Adaptation Research Group, U. of Toronto. Paper is organized into 5 sections : Sect I - a brief description of agriculture in the prairies, establishing the biophysical and socio-economic context. Sect II - an historical synopsis of agriculture and climate, highlighting the adverse impacts associated with extreme moisture deficits, or droughts. Sect. IV, discussion focuses upon climate change impacts, and is organized following the research protocol: (i) agroclimatic conditions; (ii) crop yields; (iii) livestock production; (iv) economic impacts; and (v) agriculture policy. Sect. V - Issues influencing future impacts and adaptations are discussed, specifically changes in socioeconomic conditions and agricultural policy, exports and comparative advantage, and sustainable development. In the conclusions, knowledge gaps are identified and a list of recommendations and questions for further research is presented.
Seasonal Distribution of Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Soils in the Parkland Region. (1998). Reynald Lemke1, César Izaurralde2, and Marvin Nyborg2. 1Agron. Unit, Alberta Agriculture Food and Rural Development, Edmonton, AB T6H4P2; 2Dept of Renewable Resources, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E3. The temporal variability of soil-derived N2O emissions presents a major challenge to the accurate quantification of N2O-N losses from agroecosystems. We characterized the seasonal distribution of N2O emissions from two agricultural sites in the Parkland region of Alberta during 1993 and 1994. Treatments studied were fallow, and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with and without urea fertilizer, under conventional till management.
The Greenhouse Gas Page. Andre Hucq College of Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK. Extensive listing of greenhouse gas-related web sites.
Straight Talk About Kyoto. The Pembina Institute, Drayton Valley, AB. Produced and distributed by a coalition of labour, environmental and citizens' organizations, including the Pembina Institute, Straight Talk About Kyoto presents key facts in response to eleven myths about the Kyoto Protocol and climate change. Climate Change Reality Check [74 KB pdf].
Canadian Climate Change Scenarios Network (CCCSN). The CCCSN is Environment Canada’s updated interface for distributing climate change scenarios and adaptation research.
The Full Costs of Thermal Power Production in Eastern Canada [1089 KB pdf]. International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Winnipeg, MB - Full-cost accounting quantifies the environmental externalities associated with electricity generation based on modified life cycle analysis. The basic objective is to make explicit the magnitude of direct environmental costs borne by society from electricity generation, thereby promoting power sector investment decisions that are indeed least cost (ghg implications).
Supporting Measurements Required for Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission Models for Enteric Fermentation and Stored Animal Manure. [196 KB pdf] C. Wagner-Riddle et al., Dept of Land Resource Sci., U. of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada (BIOCAP Discussion Paper). Emissions of methane and nitrous oxide, which enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect, occur at several stages of the animal production system. Additional research is required to understand these emissions, & to quantify potential reduction measures. The usefulness of future emission data obtained can be maximized if supporting measurements are carried out. These data include feed intake (amount, components, degradabilities), animal numbers, weight and physiological state; nitrogen and carbon excretion (amount and forms); characteristics of manure handling system (eg. manure composition, dimensions of storage); environmental conditions of manure storage.
Greenhouse gas emissions from animal manure. (2003) S.O. Petersen. On-farm emissions from animals and manure must be taken into account when the GHG mitigation potential of grassland management strategies involving grazing are evaluated. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure management include direct emissions of CH4 and N2O, as well as indirect emissions of N2O derived from NH3/NOx.
Climate Change and Agriculture. Alberta Agriculture & Rural Development
Measurement of methane emissions from cattle using chambers and micrometeorological techniques (2004) - 26th Conf. on Agric. & Forest Meteorology, 26 Aug., 2004 ( Abstract - Pdf). Sean McGinn, AAFC, Lethbridge, AB, & K. Beauchemin and T. Coates - study looked at three approaches to measuring enteric CH4 emissions.
Manure Management & Greenhouse Gases. [1300 KB pdf] (June 2004). Alberta Agriculture & Rural Development Information Sheet: Greenhouse Gases - Things you need to know.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Composting of Agricultural Wastes. Alberta Agriculture, Food & Rural Development - Composting is an alternative to conventional management of agricultural wastes. It produces a recycled product, which is carbon rich, free of most pathogens and weed seeds, and enhances soil quality. Studies suggest that aerobic composting systems emit less total GHG (CO2-E) than anaerobic composting systems. However, further research is needed to quantify the amount of GHG emitted from the composting process [ PDF version - 690 KB] [Feb. 2001].
Ministry Management Practices And Their Effect On GHG Emissions In The Ontario Agricultural Sector [871 KB pdf] Final Report for Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food And Rural Affairs, July 2000 (PS-99-010) - Soil Resource Group, 503 Imperial Road, North, Guelph, ON N1H 6T9; EM- firstname.lastname@example.org - study was initiated to determine potential reduction in emission of GHG from agricultural land use through adoption of BMPs. Specific study objectives: 1) Measure and project the effect of agricultural management practices (BMPs) on GHG emissions for the period 1990 to 2012; 2) Identify and recommend technical measures to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of BMP practices to reduce GHG emissions and project these measures over the period 2000 to 2012; 3) Identify the provisions that the Ministry would need to consider in order to achieve GHG reduction scenarios of 2, 4, and 6% (based on 1990 emission estimates) with the listed BMPs or any other feasible BMP practice for the period 2008 to 2012.
Region-specific assessment of greenhouse gas mitigation with different manure management strategies in four agroecological zones. (2009) (abstract). Global Change Biology. Sven Sommer et al., U. of Southern Denmark. Livestock farming systems are major sources of trace gases contributing to emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG), N2O and CH4, i.e. N2O accounts for 10% and CH4 for 30% of the anthropogenic contributions to net global warming. This paper presents scenario assessments of whole-system effects of technologies for reducing GHG emissions from livestock model farms using slurry-based manure management. Results demonstrated that changes in manure management can induce significant changes in CH4 and N2O emissions and carbon sequestration, and that the effect of introducing environmental technologies may vary significantly with livestock farming practice and interact with climatic conditions. Shortening the in-house manure storage time reduced GHG emissions by 0–40%. The largest GHG reductions of 49 to, in one case, 82% were obtained with a combination of slurry separation and incineration, the latter process contributing to a positive GHG balance of the system by substituting fossil fuels......
Options to Reduce Methane Emissions (Final Report) (Nov. 1998). A report produced for DGXI; Environmental Economics, The European Union (812 KB pdf file) This report is one of the final reports under a study completed by AEA Technology Environment for DGXI on the control and reduction of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors. The report analyses methane emissions and strategies to control them.
IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) Sept. 2004. Stoke Orchard, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, GL52 4RZ, United Kingdom; E-mail: email@example.com. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Program is funded by Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, Venezuela and the Commission of the European Communities. In addition, ARCO, BP Amoco, DMT-FP, EPRI, Mobil Oil, RWE AG and Shell International are sponsors. 7th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Vancouver, BC.
Strategy Paper For Reducing Methane Emissions [1900 KB pdf] (1996). (Communication From The Commission To The Council And To The European Parliament). Belgian Federal Dept. of the Environment, Brussels, Belgium. The aims of this document are to examine problems and concerns related to atmospheric methane emissions, to identify the main emissions sources and sinks, to introduce some cost-effective means to reduce these emissions and to provide a set of potential measures for incorporating into a Community emissions mitigation strategy. The Communication covers a series of measures that explicitly address the priority sectors, namely agriculture, waste and energy.
Agricultural Influences on Carbon Emissions and Sequestration: A Review of Evidence and the Emerging Trading Options (Mar. 2001) (82 KB pdf). Jules Pretty and Andrew Ball, Centre for Environ. & Society, and Dept of Biol. Sci., University of Essex, UK (Occasional Paper 2001-03). At current prices, it is clear that farmers are not set to become solely carbon farmers. However, systems accumulating carbon are also delivering many other public goods, such as improved biodiversity and clean water from watersheds, and policy makers may also seek to price these so as to increase the total payment package. Carbon, therefore, represents an important new source of income for farmers, as well as helping to encourage farmers to adopt a wide range of sustainable practices.
Economic Evaluation of Emission Reductions of Nitrous Oxides and Methane in Agriculture in the EU [344 KB pdf] (Feb 2001). Judith Bates, AEA Technology Environment, E6 Culham, Abingdon OX14 3ED UK - Methane emissions depend on the quality of the manure, which in turn depends on the feed intake and digestibility, the methane producing potential which varies by animal type and quality of feed consumed, the way the manure is managed and the climate. Nitrous oxide emissions are influenced by nitrogen availability, soil moisture content and temperature.
Emission of Nitrous Oxide and other Trace Gases during Composting of Grass and Green Waste. (Abstract) J. agric. Eng. Res. (1998) 69, 365–375. H.J. Hellebrand, Inst. of Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, D-14469 Potsdam, Germany - Emission of methane occurred, when insufficient aeration of the compost heap allowed anaerobic regions to develop inside the heap. Methane generation was observed during composting of mixtures of grass and soil and in the lower central parts of a heap of green waste without bush and tree trimmings. Monitoring of gas concentrations was used to detect this undesirable stage during composting.
Quantify Airborne Emissions from Buildings, Stores and Land Application Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Animal Husbandry. Eberhard Hartung, Dept of Process Eng. in Animal Production & Agric. Construction, Inst. of Agric. Eng., U. of Hohenheim, Garbenstr. 9, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org - The standard emission factors which are currently used for national and international emission budget calculations may have to be adapted to future insights and newly found cause-effect relations. With increasing knowledge about the emission rates from different sources, the necessity for a more detailed consideration of the emission factors and the cause-effect relations that characterise them will gain in importance.
Environmental Legislation in the European Union to Reduce Emissions from Livestock Production [1926 KB pdf]. Ewald Grimm, Assoc. for Technol. & Structures in Agriculture, Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. - KTBL, Darmstadt, Germany - info on ammonia abatement, reduction of nitrate pollution, codes of practice.
GHG mitigation by anaerobic digestion [235 KB pdf]; Institute for Energy, Torgauer Str. 116, 04347 Leipzig, Germany - Objectives 1) To determine the GHG mitigation potential of anaerobic digestion of cattle slurry by an integrated analysis of three digestion strategies that includes measurements of CH4 production during digestion and storage, as well as GHG emissions following field application. 2) To transfer the field data to European soils from five geographic regions.
Nitrous oxide emission factors for agricultural soils in Great Britain: the impact of soil water-filled pore space and other controlling variables (Feb. 2003). Karen E. Dobbie and Keith A. Smith, Inst. of Ecology & Resource Management, U. of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JU, UK; Global Change Biology 9:(2): 204 - Emissions varied widely throughout the year at each site, and between sites. Daily fluxes up to 1200 g N2O-N/ha/d were recorded. The highest annual flux was 27.6 kg N2O-N/ha at a grassland site in Wales, whereas the lowest, 1.7 kg N2O-N/ha, occurred on a soil overlying chalk in southern England. The key factors affecting N2O emissions from agricultural soil were soil Water-Filled Pore Space, temperature and soil NO3-N content.
The unexpected consequences of cutting ammonia emissions. Using figures from European agriculture in the model, Brink showed that measures aimed at reducing ammonia emissions - such as installing low emission stables or adopting low emission applications of manure - led to a tripling in nitrous oxide.
Environmental Benefits of Livestock Manure Management Practices and Technology by Life Cycle Assessment (2003). D.L. Sandars; E. Audsley; C. Canete; T.R. Cumby; I.M. Scotford; A.G. Williams, Process Eng. Div., Silsoe Res. Inst., Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford, MK45 4HS, UK; Biosystems Engineering (2003) 84 (3), 267–281 - An environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) procedure is constructed to compare the total emissions from different techniques for managing livestock wastes; paper reports comparative LCAs for several pig waste management options. If the splash-plate system is taken as a reference, the injector system causes only 64% of the environmental acidification and 71% of the eutrophication of surface waters.
Methane UK [1099 KB pdf]. Environmental Change Institute, U. of Oxford - 9 Chapter report - The Methane UK project examines if and how methane might fit into these trading schemes, as well as examining more conventional direct policy measures.
Options to Reduce Methane Emissions (Final Report) [812 KB pdf] (Nov. 1998). A report produced for DGXI; Environmental Economics, The European Union. This report is one of the final reports under a study completed by AEA Technology Environment for DGXI on the control and reduction of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors. The report analyses methane emissions and strategies to control them.
Climate Change - US EPA
U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Archive (1990 - 2006)
U.S. Climate Action Report (2010). United States Department of State. U.S. Climate Action Report 2010 (2010 CAR) sets out the major actions the U.S. government is taking at the federal level, highlights examples of state and local actions, and outlines U.S. efforts to assist other countries’ efforts to address climate change. The residential and commercial sectors represent approx. 35% of US GHG emissions, making them an integral focus of US climate change policies and measures.
Growing Carbon: A New Crop That Helps Agricultural Producers and the Climate Too. [PDF] USDA/NRCS. Everyone talks about the weather, but no one does anything about it. This old saying may no longer be quite true. While day-to-day weather is hard to predict, more and more evidence suggests that human activities are beginning to change the overall climate of our planet, in ways that may hurt agricultural producers. But producers have opportunities to help efforts to slow climate change, to build a cushion against its harmful effects, and perhaps to grow a new crop—carbon.
Reducing Ammonia Emissions and Phosphorus Runoff from Animal Manure with Aluminum Compounds. Philip A. Moore, USDA/ARS Poultry Products Res. - ; Alum applications to poultry manure reduce the amount of water pollution caused when land is fertilized with this resource. The objectives of this study were to see how alum affects ammonia emissions in poultry houses and, in turn, it's effect on poultry growth. Another objective was to determine how alum applications would affect phosphorus runoff (pollution) from fields fertilized with poultry litter. The results showed that alum greatly reduced ammonia emissions, causing the chickens to grow better. When the litter was applied to pastures, phosphorus runoff was reduced by 73%, compared to normal litter. This study indicates that adding alum to chicken litter will result in improved poultry performance, while reducing pollution.
EPA's Methane Energy Programs. US EPA. EPA's Methane Energy Programs promote profitable opportunities for reducing emissions of methane, an important greenhouse gas. These programs are designed to overcome a wide range of informational, technical, and institutional barriers to reduce methane emissions, while creating profitable activities for the coal, natural gas, landfill, and agricultural industries. Through these voluntary programs, companies work with EPA to achieve emissions reductions by implementing cost-effective management methods and technologies.
Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emission Factors (CHIEF). US Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Factor And Inventory Group (MD-14), US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; Phone: (919) 541-1000; Fax: (919) 541-5680 - Emission Inventory Links; Emission Factor Links; Software & Tools Links; Emissions Modeling Links.
Agriculture Sector Analysis on Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation in the United States [919 KB pdf]. Ph.D. Dissertation by Uwe Andreas Schneider, Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University, Dec. 2000. This dissertation analyzes the economic potential of agriculture to participate in greenhouse gas emission mitigation efforts. Major agricultural mitigation strategies are included simultaneously to capture interactions. Results indicate that agriculture's contribution to emission reduction may be substantial, but not sufficient to fulfill the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol, which are estimated to be in the neighborhood of 700 million metric tons (MMT) of carbon equivalents by the year 2010.
Estimating Agricultural Nitrous Oxide Emissions (2008) Stephen J. Del Grosso et al. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union 89(51): 529. Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, tend to be underestimated by standard methods of quantification provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [IPCC, 2006]. Soil water content, temperature, texture, and carbon availability influence N2O emissions, but the strongest correlate is usually N inputs to the system, especially at large scales [Stehfest and Bouwman, 2006].
Minnesota Agriculture and the Reduction of Greenhouse Gases [463 KB pdf] Gordon McIntosh, Univ. of Minnesota, Morris (December 2000) - Extensive scientific evidence indicates that the greenhouse gases produced by human activities are the major contributors to this global warming. The agricultural sector contributes carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide to the increase in greenhouse gases.... With proper domestic farm policy, farmers can benefit financially from practices that store carbon, by selling carbon storage credits to industries that emit greenhouse gases.
U.S. National Emission Inventory (NEI): Air Pollutant Emission Trends. US EPA. The Emission Factors and Inventory Group (EFIG) of the EPA maintains a national emission inventory (NEI) that characterizes emissions of criteria and hazardous air pollutants.
Functional Classification of Swine Manure Management Systems Based on Effluent and Gas Emission Characteristics (2001) [pdf]. J.A. Zahna, J.L. Hatfieldb, D.A. Lairdb, T.T. Hartb, Y.S. Doc and A.A. DiSpiritoc - aNational Swine Research Center, USDA-ARS, Ames, IA 50011; b National Soil Tilth Lab., USDA-ARS, Ames, IA 50011; cDep. of Microbiology, Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA 50011; J. Environ. Quality 30:635-647. Gaseous emissions from swine manure storage systems represent a concern to air quality due to the potential effects of hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, methane, and volatile organic compounds on environmental quality and human health... The emission rates of CH4, NH3, and VOCs were found to be dependent upon manure loading rate and were indirectly influenced by animal numbers.
Agricultural Contributions to Greenhouse Gas Emissions (2000) [658 KB pdf]. Donald C. Reicosky, Jerry L. Hatfield & Ronald L. Sass, USDA-ARS & Rice Univ.; CAB Internat. ."Climate Change and Global Crop Productivity", Ch.3.
Methods For Estimating Methane Emissions from Domesticated Animals (Ch.6)(Oct. 1999) [102 KB pdf]. US EPA Emission Inventory Improvement Program, EIIP Document Series, Volume VIII - Emission Sources; Factors Influencing Methane Emissions from Domesticated Animals; Preferred Method for Estimating Emissions; Alternate Method for Estimating Emissions.
Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (May, 2000) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This report provides good practice guidance to assist countries in producing inventories that are neither over nor underestimates so far as can be judged, and in which uncertainties are reduced as far as practicable.
Estimating Ammonia Emissions From Anthropogenic Non-agricultural Sources - Draft Final Report (April 2004) [406 KB pdf] - Prepared for: Emission Inventory Improvement Program, US EPA - guidance. For the purposes of this guidance, the term “anthropogenic sources,” excludes emissions from the agricultural sector (e.g., fertilizer application, livestock operations), as well as natural sources (e.g., soils, wild animal populations).
Iowa Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation Air Quality Study (Feb. 2002) - Environmental Health Sciences Research Center, The Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA - report is based upon the best science available to ensure that rural ambient air is as free of risk as possible in order to protect health and the quality of life at the highest possible level. View / Download FULL Report [9666 KB pdf].
For additional information > Anaerobic Digestion and GHG Emission Reductions
CH4 AND N2O EMISSIONS FROM LIVESTOCK MANURE [261 KB pdf]. Paul Jun, Michael Gibbs, and Kathryn Gaffney (ICF Incorporated). - Methane estimates - livestock population data characterized by subgroup are required. For Tier 1 estimates, necessary population data should be readily obtainable within the country or from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). The Tier 2 estimates require additional data on manure characteristics and manure management practices, for which country-specific data should be used. These data should be obtained through data collection activities. If necessary, IPCC default values can be used for some of the factors in the Tier 2 calculation. ( methodology + emission factors included).
CH4 EMISSIONS FROM ANIMAL MANURE [401 KB pdf]. Grietje Zeeman and Sybren Gerbens (Wageningen University, The Netherlands). paper identifies uncertainties in the default emission factors, Bo (biodegradability of manure) and MCF (methane conversion factor), and gives suggestions for improvement of these values. The maximum biodegradability, Bo, is expressed in m³ CH4 produced per kg VS (volatile solids). Anaerobic digesters can be constructed in such a way that no or hardly any methane emission occurs.
Greenhouse gas emissions from stored liquid swine manure in a cold
40(4), Feb. 2006, P. 618-627. K-H Park, A.G. Thompson, M. Marinier, K. Clark & C. Wagner-Riddle, U. of Guelph, ON. A 4-tower micromet. mass balance method was used at 3 swine farms in Ontario, Canada (annualTair <10 °C), from July 2000 - May 2002. Methane and N2O concentrations were measured using 2 tunable diode laser trace gas analyzers, and manure temperature (Tman), redox potential (Eh) and composition were also measured. Our data suggests that N2O emissions from non-aerated liquid swine manure storage could be ignored in GHG inventories. The methane conversion factor derived from measured fluxes was 0.23, comparable to the USEPA derived values of 0.22–0.25, but much lower than the IPCC recommended value for cold climates (0.39).
Air Pollution Control Officer’s Determination of VOC Emission Factors for Dairies, San Joaquin Valley (California) Air Pollution Control District - VOC Emission Factors for Dairies [130 KB pdf] (Aug. 2005); Appendices - report presents and provides the bases for the Air Pollution Control Officer’s (APCO’s) determination of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emission factors to be used for permitting San Joaquin Valley CA dairies.
Nitrogen Oxide and Methane Emissions under Varying Tillage and Fertilizer Management (2005) [pdf]. J Env. Qual 34:1467-1477. Rodney T. Venterea (USDA-ARS, St. Paul, MN 55108); Martin Burgera (U. Minn., St. Paul), and Kurt A. Spokas (USDA-ARS, Morris, MN 56267) - Comprehensive assessment of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) budget of reduced tillage agricultural systems must consider emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), each of which have higher global warming potentials than carbon dioxide (CO2). Tillage intensity may also impact nitric oxide (NO) emissions, which can have various environmental and agronomic impacts; study demonstrates that N2O emissions can represent a substantial component of the total GHG budget of reduced tillage systems, and that interactions between fertilizer and tillage practices can be important in controlling non-CO2 GHG emissions.
Biological degradation and greenhouse gas emissions during pre-storage of liquid animal manure (2004). Moller HB, Sommer SG, & Ahring BK; Danish Inst. of Agric. Sci., Dept of Agric. Eng., Res. Ctr Bygholm, Box 536, DK-8700 Horsens, Denmark; J Environ Qual. Jan-Feb. 33(1):27-36. The results show substantial methane and carbon dioxide production from animal manure in an open fed-batch system kept at 15 to 20 degrees C, even for short storage times, but the influence of temperature was not significant at storage times of <30 d. During long-term storage (90 d), a strong influence of temperature on the Methane Conversion Factor value, especially for pig manure, was observed.
Nitrous Oxide, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrogen Dioxide Fluxes from Soils after Manure and Urea Application [137 KB pdf] (2003). Hiroko, Akiyama and Haruo Tsuruta, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences (NIAES), 3-1-1 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8604, Japan. J. of Environ. Quality 32:423-431 abstract
Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States. Energy Information Admin., US Dept. of Energy. The Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, the eleventh annual report, presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases.
Cattle Slurry Applied Before Fertilizer Nitrate Lowers Nitrous Oxide and Dinitrogen Emissions (2002) [183 KB pdf]. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66: 647-652 - R. James Stevens and Ronald J. Laughlin - Dept of Agric. & Rural Development, Ag. & Env. Sci. Div., Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, UK - Denitrifying conditions are created when the readily decomposable C in the Cattle Slurry is oxidized by the soil microbial biomass when NO3 is present and O2 is deficient. The timing of CS application relative to fertilizer-NO3 application could therefore affect the losses of N2O and N2.
Review of methane and nitrous oxide emission factors for manure management in cold climates (2002) [233 KB pdf]. Swedish Inst. of Agric. & Env. Engineering, Box 7033, S-750 07 UPPSALA. Andrew Dustan. Aimed at reviewing and developing the methods used for quantifying the emissions of so called ‘greenhouse gases’ from Swedish Agriculture..... consists of a review of the methods for estimating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal manure management. Manure management is one of the emission source categories within the agricultural sector. The estimation and reporting methodologies are based on guidelines laid down by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
Nitrous Oxide Emissions and the Anthropogenic Nitrogen in Wastewater and Solid Waste (2002)[129 KB pdf]. J. Environ. Engineering 128 (2): 137-150. Philip K. Barton and James W. Atwater, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of British Columbia, 2324 Main Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4. Excellent review paper on human impacts on the nitrogen cycle and on nitrous oxide emissions - In the 20th century, human interference in the nitrogen cycle has caused a doubling of the global nitrogen fixation rate (an element critical in the proteins of all organisms), thereby intensifying global nitrous oxide (N2O) production during microbial nitrification and denitrification.
Nitrous Oxide and Ammonia Fluxes in a Soybean Field Irrigated with Swine Effluent (2002) [pdf]. R.R. Sharpe; L.A. Harper, Southern Piedmont Conservation Res. Ctr., USDA-ARS, 1420 Experiment Station Road, Watkinsville, GA 30677; J. Environ. Quality 31:524-532 (2002) - objectives were to quantify gaseous fluxes of NH3 and N2O from effluent applications under field conditions. Three applications of swine effluent were applied to soybean and gaseous fluxes were determined from gas concentration profiles and the flux-gradient gas transport technique. The large losses of NH3 and N2O illustrate the difficulty of basing effluent irrigation schedules on N concentrations and that NH3 emissions can significantly contribute to N enrichment of the environment.
Regulation of Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Soils Irrigated with Dairy Farm Effluent (2001). L. Barton and L.A. Schipper, Landcare Research, Private Bag 3127, Hamilton, New Zealand. In J. Env. Qual. 30:1881-1887 - Dairy farm effluent application increased N2O emissions more than inorganic N fertilizer by enhancing denitrification either by increasing C availability and/or decreasing soil aeration following increased respiration. These findings suggest that the proportion of N applied to the soil and emitted as N2O may at times be greater for organic N fertilizers than inorganic N fertilizers, particularly if the organic N fertilizer contains sufficient available C to enhance denitrification. Full Paper [245 KB pdf].
Emissions From Animal Feeding Operations [1053 KB pdf] (Aug., 2001). U.S. E.P.A., Emission Standards Div., Office of Air Quality Planning and Stds, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 - This report presents the results of a preliminary investigation into air pollution from large animal feeding operations (AFOs) for the beef, dairy, swine, and poultry (broilers, layers, and turkeys) animal sectors. (compilation of emission factors); (Tech. Trans. Network - Inventories & Emission Factors).
A review of methods for measuring methane, nitrous oxide and odour emissions from animal production activities [110 KB pdf] (2000). (ISSN 1401-4963). James Michael Greatorex, Swedish Inst. of Agric. & Env. Engineering (JTI), Box 7033, S-750 07 UPPSALA - The aim of this literature study is to review the currently available knowledge on methodologies for the determination of gaseous emissions from livestock production. The emphasis is on methods for measuring fluxes of nitrous oxide and methane, but odour emissions are also included to a smaller extent. A discussion of the analytical methods available for quantifying N2O and CH4 is included.
Ministry Management Practices And Their Effect On GHG Emissions In The Ontario Agricultural Sector (July 2000) [871 KB PDF] Final Report for OMAFRA, (PS-99-010) by Soil Resource Group, 503 Imperial Road, North, Guelph, Ontario N1H 6T9; This study was initiated to determine the potential reduction in emission of GHG from agricultural land use through adoption of BMPs. The specific study objectives were as follows: 1) Measure and project the effect of agricultural management practices (BMPs) on GHG emissions for the period 1990 to 2012; 2) Identify and recommend technical measures to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of BMP practices to reduce GHG emissions and project these measures over the period 2000 to 2012; 3) Identify the provisions that the Ministry would need to consider in order to achieve GHG reduction scenarios of 2, 4, and 6% (based on 1990 emission estimates) with the listed BMPs or any other feasible BMP practice for the period 2008 to 2012.
Options Report: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Canadian Agriculture. (January 2000) [820 KB pdf]. Agriculture and Agri-Food Climate Change Table (Publication #: 2028/E,). In response to the Kyoto Protocol, Canada’s First Ministers asked their Environment and Energy Ministers to develop a comprehensive national strategy to reduce Canadian greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Ministers created the National Climate Change Secretariat who established 16 Issue Tables to examine options for reducing Canada’s GHG emissions. In their Options Reports, the Tables identified, analyzed and evaluated policy options for GHG reduction in their sectors. This document is the Options Report for the Agriculture and Agri-Food Table.
Greenhouse gas release from stored dairy cattle manure slurry [317 KB pdf] (1995) Patni, N. K., H. A. Jackson, D. I. Massé, M. Wolynetz, and R. Kinsman, AAFC Ottawa - In Proc.of 7th Int. Symp. on Agric. & Food Processing Wastes, June 1995, Chicago, IL, Sponsored by ASAE, p. 261-271. Emission of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from 8 to 9% dry matter content dairy cattle manure slurry, stored in a below-grade 296 m3 covered concrete storage tank (7.2 x 14.7 x 2.8 m deep) was determined during winter ('93-'94) and summer ('94) seasons. Results of this study suggest that greenhouse gas release from stored dairy cattle manure slurry would be low under cool climatic conditions similar to those of eastern Ontario.
Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Manure Slurry (1994) [290 KB pdf]. H.A. Jackson, N.K. Patni, D.I. Massé, R.G. Kinsman, M.S. Wolynetz, D.J. Buckley, J.A. Munroe, F.D. Sauer, R. Desjardins, E. Pattey; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. ASAE Meeting Paper No. 944540, Atlanta, GA, December 13-16, 1994. - A monitoring system to continuously measure methane and carbon dioxide emissions from dairy cattle manure slurry stored in a 296,000 litre farm manure storage and in 20, 30 and 200 litre laboratory manure storages is described. Results obtained over a 120-day summer period are presented.
Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions In A Controlled Environment Dairy Barn (1993) [314 KB pdf]. H.A. Jackson, R.G. Kinsman, D.I. Massé, J.A. Munroe, F.D. Sauer N.K. Patni, D.J. Buckley, E. Pattey, R. Desjardins, M.S. Wolynetz; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Presented at the 1993 ASAE Meeting, Chicago, IL; December 14-17, 1993 - paper describes a monitoring system developed to continuously measure, on a 30 minute basis, greenhouse gas (methane and carbon dioxide) emissions from a 118 cow controlled environment dairy barn. Results obtained over an eight month period are presented.
Development of a Methane Conversion Factor to Estimate Emissions from Animal Waste Lagoons [58 KB pdf]. Joseph Mangino, U.S. EPA, Methane and Sequestration Branch, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20004; Deborah Bartram & Amy Brazy, Eastern Res. Group, Inc., Eng. & Anal. Div., 14555 Avion Parkway, Suite 200, Chantilly, VA 20151 - a procedure was developed for the U.S.A. to calculate methane conversion factor (MCFs) based on the limited set of measurement data available, the results of laboratory-scale tests on methane production from animal waste, and knowledge on the performance of lagoon systems. This procedure accounts for temperature variation throughout the year, retention of volatile solids in a system, and management and design practices that may reduce the volatile solids available for conversion to methane.
The GHG Protocol Initiative. A broad international coalition of businesses, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), government and inter-governmental organizations. It operates under the umbrella of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the World Resources Institute (WRI).
Nitrous Oxide Emissions - US EPA - Nitrous oxide (N2O) is produced by both natural and human-related sources. Primary human-related sources of N2O are agricultural soil management, animal manure management, sewage treatment, mobile and stationary combustion of fossil fuel, adipic acid production, and nitric acid production. Nitrous oxide is also produced naturally from a wide variety of biological sources in soil and water, particularly microbial action in wet tropical forests.
Carbon and Energy Life-Cycle Assessment for Five Agricultural Anaerobic Digesters in Massachusetts on Small Dairy Farms. [165 KB pdf] (2010). Chelsea Morris, William Jorgenson, & Sam Snellings, AGreen Energy LLC, 580 Harrison Ave Suite 404, Boston, Massachusetts, 02118, U.S.A.Int'l Food & Agribusiness Management Rev. 13(3), 2010. An assessment is conducted that quantifies environmental impact through estimates of useable energy produced and C emissions avoided by AGreen Energy’s project to install anaerobic digesters on five Massachusetts farms. The analysis shows the anaerobic co-digestion of manure and source separated organics under project conditions results in a net energy gain of 1:2.9 and a GHG emissions reduction of 50% over business as usual, justifying the technique as a sustainable residual management tool for dairy operations as well as food industry businesses.
GHG emission reductions from manure management systems: Approved baseline methodology AM0006 [230 KB pdf] - UNFCCC - Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) - methodology is based on the PDD Methane capture and combustion of swine manure treatment for Peralillo whose baseline study, monitoring and verification plan and project design document were prepared by Agricola Super Limitada. See also - Annex 4 Approved baseline methodology AM0006.
Greenhouse gas mitigation from improved animal waste management systems in confined animal feeding operations [242 KB] (Approved baseline methodology AM0016) UNFCCC. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) - methodology is based on the draft CDM-PDD “Granja Becker GHG Mitigation Project” whose baseline study, monitoring and verification plan and project design document were prepared by AgCert Canada Co. on behalf of Granja Becker, L.B. Pork, Inc. and AgCert Canada Co.
Estimating Greenhouse Gas Reductions For a Regional Digester Treating Dairy Manure [283 KB pdf] Deborah Bartram, Eastern Res. Group, Inc., 14555 Avion Parkway, Suite 200, Chantilly, Virginia 20151; Wiley Barbour, Env. Resources Trust, Inc., 1612 K St, NW Suite 1400, Washington, DC 20006. The state-of-the-art anaerobic digesters operate as a centralized manure management facility, and currently process manure from 14 dairy farms in Chino Basin (California). A model was developed to quantify and verify CH4 and other GHG emission reductions and the environmental benefits of renewable energy produced by the digesters. Baseline emissions of CH4, N2O, and NH3 associated with dairy manure management, including land application, prior to implementation of the digester project were estimated using farm-specific operational data.
Development of a Methane Conversion Factor to Estimate Emissions from Animal Waste Lagoons [58 KB pdf] Joseph Mangino, U.S. EPA, Methane and Sequestration Br, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20004; Deborah Bartram & Amy Brazy, Eastern Research Group, Inc., Engineering and Analysis Div., 14555 Avion Parkway, Suite 200, Chantilly, VA 20151 - a procedure was developed for the United States to calculate Methane Conversion Factors based on the limited set of measurement data available, the results of laboratory-scale tests on methane production from animal waste, and knowledge on the performance of lagoon systems. This procedure accounts for temperature variation throughout the year, retention of volatile solids in a system, and management and design practices that may reduce the volatile solids available for conversion to methane.
State Action Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions for North Carolina. Appalachian State University, Department of Geography and Planning. CHAPTER 9 - AGRICULTURE SECTOR STRATEGIES [48 KB pdf] Nancy Nelson, Appalachian State U. - Table 9-2 shows the reductions of emissions possible from the three agriculture sector strategies selected. Of the possible strategies, these three held the greatest potential for reducing GHG emissions in this sector. The combustion of CH4 from animal waste to substitute for fossil fuel-generated energy produced slightly more emissions savings (113,000 tons) than the capture of the CH4 from animal waste lagoons (86,610 tons).
Air Quality Emissions and Impact: Milbank Community Foundation and Midwest Dairy Institute [312 KB pdf] (May 2005) Milbank, South Dakota - South Dakota Dept of Environment & Natural Resources - The Institute plans to milk 2000 cows and dispose of the manure in an anaerobic digester. The methane produced by the digester will be burned to produce heat and electricity for the facility. The biogas generator would be equipped with an electronic combustion control system to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions; includes some useful emission factors.
Aggregating and Trading Anaerobic Digester Carbon Credits [1743 KB pdf] (Mar. 24, 2004) - Matt Gabris, Premium Standard Farms, Inc. - Presentation - baseline information - developing C credits.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Composting of Agricultural Wastes. Alberta Agriculture & Rural Development - Composting is an alternative to conventional management of agricultural wastes. It produces a recycled product, which is carbon rich, free of most pathogens and weed seeds, and enhances soil quality. Studies suggest that aerobic composting systems emit less total GHG (CO2-E) than anaerobic composting systems. However, further research is needed to quantify the amount of GHG emitted from the composting process [ PDF version - 690 KB] [Feb. 2001].
Gaseous NO, NO2, and NH3 Loss during Cattle Feedlot Manure Composting [104 KB pdf]. Xiying Hao* and Chi Chang, Lethbridge Res. Centre, AAFC; In "Internet-Conference "Nitrogen Emissions from Soil", Sept 18th - Dec 31, 2000. Atmospheric concentrations of NH3, NO and NO2 at the windrow surface and 50 cm above were monitored throughout the composting period (99 days). Composting increased the atmospheric concentration of NH3 and NO, while NO2 was not affected. Since the decomposition of manure/compost materials was incomplete for the passive aeration treatment, further studies are needed to investigate possible techniques to reduce NH3 and NO losses (retaining more N in the finishing compost) while increasing the composting rate.
Nitrous Oxide Emissions and the Anthropogenic Nitrogen in Wastewater and Solid Waste [129 KB pdf] - J. Environ. Engineering 128 (2): 137-150. 2002. Philip K. Barton and James W. Atwater, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of British Columbia, 2324 Main Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4. Excellent review paper on human impacts on the nitrogen cycle and on nitrous oxide emissions - In the 20th century, human interference in the nitrogen cycle has caused a doubling of the global nitrogen fixation rate (an element critical in the proteins of all organisms), thereby intensifying global nitrous oxide (N2O) production during microbial nitrification and denitrification.
Composting as a Strategy to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions [34 KB pdf]. John W. Paul, Transform Compost Systems Ltd. Abbotsford, BC.; Claudia Wagner-Riddle, Andrew Thompson, U. of Guelph, Dept of Land Resource Science, Ron Fleming, Malcolm MacAlpine, Ridgetown College, U. of Guelph, Ridgetown, ON - presented at: Climate Change 2 Canadian Technology Development Conference, Oct. 3-5, 2001, Holiday Inn on King, Toronto, ON. Composting animal manure can reduce GHG emissions in two ways; by reducing nitrous oxide and methane emissions during manure storage and application, and by reducing the amount of manufactured fertilizers and the GHG associated with their production and use.
Carbon, Nitrogen Balances and Greenhouse Gas Emission during Cattle Feedlot Manure Composting [98 KB pdf] (2004) Xiying Hao, Chi Chang, and Francis J. Larney. J. Environ. Qual. 33:37–44. AAFC, Lethbridge Res. Ctr, Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1J 4B1. This study investigated GHG emissions during composting of straw-bedded manure (SBM) and wood chip-bedded manure (WBM).Total GHG emissions as CO2–C equivalent were not significantly different between SBM (368.4 ± 18.5 kg/ Mg) and WBM (349.2 ± 24.3 kg/Mg). However, emission of 368.4 kg C/Mg (CO2–C equivalent) was greater than the initial TC content (330.5 kg/Mg) of SBM, raising the question of the net benefits of composting on C sequestration.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions during Cattle Feedlot Manure Composting (2001) [pdf]. Xiying Hao, Chi Chang, Francis J. Larney, and Greg R. Travis, Lethbridge Res. Ctr., AAFC; In - J. Environ. Qual. 30: 376-386 - The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) during feedlot manure composting reduces the agronomic value of the final compost and increases the greenhouse effect.... The lower emission associated with the passive treatment was mainly due to the incomplete decomposition of manure and a lower gas diffusion rate.
Nitrous Oxide Emission from Land Application, Composting and Storage of Manure (2000) [410 KB pdf]. N.K. Patni1, T. Kannangara1,S. Bittman1, J. Paul2, S. Yu1. 1 Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, AAFC, PO Box 1000, Agassiz, BC; 2Transform Compost Systems, 34642 Mierau St., Abbotsford, BC - presented at ASAE Annual Int. Meeting, Milwaukee, WI, July 9-12, 2000 - Emissions of nitrous oxide were determined following three to four annual applications of fertilizer, dairy cattle liquid manure and liquid hog manure on grassland.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Indicators Four Years after Manure and Compost Applications (2003)[124 KB pdf]. Daniel Ginting, Anabayan Kessavalou, Bahman Eghball and John W. Doran. Dept of Agronomy and Horticulture and USDA-ARS, University of Nebraska -Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583; J. Environ. Quality 32:23-32.
Patterns and quantities of NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions during swine manure composting without forced aeration–effect of compost pile scale (Feb. 2003) [181 KB pdf]. Yasuyuki Fukumoto, Takashi Osada, Dai Hanajima and Kiyonori Haga, Dept of Feeding & the Environment, Nat. Inst. of Livestock & Grassland Sci., Ikenodai 2, Kukizaki-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki-ken 305-0901, Japan; Bioresource Technology 89 (2), Sept 2003: 109-114.
Emissions Caused by Manure Composting (2000)[236 KB pdf]. Hans Jürgen Hellebrand, Wolf-Dieter Kalk, Inst. für Agrartechnik Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam, Germany - The results of manure composting show that ammonia and methane emissions subside within three to four weeks. Nitrous oxide emissions exhibited significantly greater variability with regard to time and place. Maxima of nitrous oxide emission were observed mainly after ammonia and methane had decayed.
Emission of Nitrous Oxide and other Trace Gases during Composting of Grass and Green Waste (1998) [356 KB pdf]. H. J. Hellebrand, Inst. of Agric. Eng., Bornim (ATB), Potsdam, Germany. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 69, 365 - 375; maintenance of aerobic conditions is essential to keep emissions of methane and nitrous oxide at a low rate; emission of nitrous oxide during composting of green waste from land maintenance was about 0)5% of the total nitrogen content of the initial material.
Economic Evaluation of Emission Reductions of Nitrous Oxides and Methane in Agriculture in the EU (Feb 2001) [344 KB pdf]. Judith Bates, AEA Technology Environment, E6 Culham, Abingdon OX14 3ED UK - Methane emissions depend on the quality of the manure, which in turn depends on the feed intake and digestibility, the methane producing potential which varies by animal type and quality of feed consumed, the way the manure is managed and the climate. Nitrous oxide emissions are influenced by nitrogen availability, soil moisture content and temperature.
Emission of Climate-Relevant Trace Gases and Succession of Microbial Communities during Open-Windrow Composting (1997) [148 KB pdf]. Bettina Hellmann, Laszlo Zelles,* Ansa Palojarvi, Quingyun Bai - Nat. Res. Center for Env. & Health, Inst. of Soil Ecology, Neuherberg, Germany. IN: Appl. Env. Biol. 63(3): p. 1011–1018 - The emission rates of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) increased successively during compost maturation; The emission rate patterns of these trace gases corresponded to the concentrations of PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids) and their particular subfractions.
Emission of methane, nitrous oxide, and ammonia from dung windrows (2001) [295 KB pdf]. Hans Jürgen Hellebrand & Wolf-Dieter Kalk, Inst. of Agric. Engin., Bornim (ATB), Potsdam, Germany, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 60 (1-3): 83-87, 2001 - Gaseous emissions from livestock waste composting were measured within a project aiming at the determination of the nitrogen balance in biological farming. The mean ratios of the total gas fluxes related to the carbon dioxide flux were 2.6 10-3 for NH3, 5.9 10-4 for N2O and 6.2 10-2 for CH4. Both of these factors (total gas flux and mean ratios of total gas fluxes) can serve as indicators to quantify impacts on the environment.
Emissions Caused by Manure Composting (2000) [236 KB pdf]. Hans Jürgen Hellebrand, Wolf-Dieter Kalk, Inst. für Agrartechnik Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam, Germany - The results of manure composting show that ammonia and methane emissions subside within three to four weeks. Nitrous oxide emissions exhibited significantly greater variability with regard to time and place. Maxima of nitrous oxide emission were observed mainly after ammonia and methane had decayed.
Emission of Nitrous Oxide and other Trace Gases during Composting of Grass and Green Waste [356 KB pdf] H. J. Hellebrand, Inst. of Agric. Eng., Bornim (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, D-14469 Potsdam, Germany - J. Agric. Eng. Res. (1998) 69, 365 - 375 - maintenance of aerobic conditions is essential to keep emissions of methane and nitrous oxide at a low rate; emission of nitrous oxide during composting of green waste from land maintenance was about 0)5% of the total nitrogen content of the initial material.
Patterns and quantities of NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions during swine manure composting without forced aeration––effect of compost pile scale. [181 KB pdf] (Feb. 2003) Yasuyuki Fukumoto, Takashi Osada, Dai Hanajima and Kiyonori Haga, Dept of Feeding & the Environment, Nat. Inst. of Livestock & Grassland Sci., Ikenodai 2,Kukizaki-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki-ken 305-0901, Japan. Bioresource Technology 89 (2), Sept 2003: 109-114.
See also: Sustainable Development
Canadian Communities’ Guidebook For Adaptation To Climate Change (1st Ed., including an approach to generate mitigation co-benefits in the context of sustainable development) (2008) [3200 KB pdf]. Livia Bizikova, Tina Neale, Ian Burton, Env. Canada & U. British Columbia. This Guidebook builds on the rich experiences of researchers within Env. Canada’s Adaptation & Impacts Res. Div. (AIRD) working with decision-makers on practical projects focused on climate change and sustainable development. It provides a process closely tied to on-going planning cycles to help decision-makers incorporate climate change science, impacts, adaptation and mitigation solutions into their sustainable development initiatives.
Indicators of Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change for Agriculture in the Prairie Region of Canada: An analysis based on Statistics Canada's Census of Agriculture (2007) (2400 KB pdf]. International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD). This paper outlines the development and analysis of a geographic information system (GIS)-based indicator of the adaptive capacity to climate change of agriculturally-based communities in the Prairie region.
Agricultural Adaptation to Drought (ADA) in Canada: The Case of 2001 to 2002. (May 2007) ([1910 KB pdf]. E. Wheaton et al., Sask. Res. Council. This paper summarizes the Agricultural Drought Adaptation (ADA) project, which is the first work to comprehensively assess the severity, area, and duration of past droughts across Canada. It is also the first work to estimate the characteristics of future droughts across the entire country.
Agriculture Adaptation to Climate Change in Alberta: Focus Group Results (Mar. 2005) [375 KB pdf]. Producers from different locations within Alberta were randomly selected and invited to participate in 1 of 4 focus group discussions, which focused on producers' risks, opportunities and capabilities due to climate change.
Climate Change Adaptation in Light of Sustainable Agriculture (2005) [101 KB pdf]. Ellen Wall & Barry Smit, U. of Guelph. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Vol. 27(1). Based on data from Canadian producers, this article identifies several climate and weather risk adaptation strategies currently in use and notes their close links to sustainable agriculture practices. The article concludes that the mutually supportive relationship between sustainable agriculture and climate change adaptation could be used to justify more government support for sustainable agriculture policies and programs.
Canadian Agri-food Sector Adaptation to Risks and Opportunities from Climate Change: Position Paper On Climate Change, Impacts, and Adaptation in Canadian Agriculture (Oct. 2004) [1100 KB pdf]. Ellen Wall, Barry Smit, And Johanna Wandel, C-CIARN, Guelph. This position paper reviews and summarizes the current state of knowledge about climate change risks and opportunities for the Canadian agri-food sector with a focus on adaptation strategies. The document also identifies research gaps and issues that need to be addressed if policy and programs for agricultural adaptation to climate change are to be timely and effective.
Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: A Canadian Perspective (2004) [4598 KB]. This document provides an overview of research in the field of climate change impacts and adaptation over the past five years, as it relates to Canada. This summary presents common themes of the report, as well as highlights from individual chapters.
Adaptation to Climate Change Challenges and Opportunities: Implications and Recommendations for the Canadian Agri-Food Sector (Mar. 2003). Barry Smit, U. of Guelph; Ellen Wall, C-CIARN Agriculture; Brief to the Senate Standing Committee on Forestry & Agriculture, March 20, 2003. There are two distinct responses to climate change. One is to reduce (mitigate) greenhouse gas emissions in an attempt to moderate climate change. The other is to adapt, both to the risks or vulnerabilities that result from changes in climate, and to any opportunities climate change presents.
Evaluation of the Effect of Climate Change on Forage and Livestock Production and Assessment Strategies on the Canadian Prairies (2002) [1200 KB pdf]. R.D.H. Cohen et al., U. of Saskatchewan. An understanding of adaptation of plant and animal systems in response to changes in climate will help to reduce the risk involved in livestock production. Climate change will affect a large array of systems. Forage and livestock production will not be excluded from the impact of climate change. The purpose of this study was to understand the concept of adaptation and to integrate adaptive management strategies within the beef industry.
Assessment of Climate Change on the Agricultural Resources of the Canadian Prairies. (2002) [9000 KB pdf]. Wade N. Nyirfa and Bill Harron, Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration, AAFC, Regina, SK. Objective of this study is to develop a process to evaluate climate change impacts on agricultural resources of the Prairies and demonstrate the process using an accepted climate change scenario. Central to this process is the Land Suitability Rating System (LSRS) that was developed by agricultural experts to evaluate the potential of soils, landscapes and climate to sustainably produce crops.
The Effects of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on Herbicide Efficacy and Weed/Crop Competition. (2001) [1100 KB pdf]. Daniel J. Archambault et al., Alberta Research Council. The dynamics of competition between crops and weeds are affected by environmental conditions, and have been shown to change with CO2 enrichment. Differential responses of C3 and C4 plants to elevated CO2 and temperature may cause shifts in their competitive interactions. There is a need to evaluate the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on crop/weed competition and herbicide efficacy to develop strategies for agriculture in the face of climate change.
Agriculture Energy Use of Adaptation Options to Climate Change (2001) [298 KB pdf]. Cecil N. Nagy, Centre for Studies in Agriculture, Law and the Environment (CSALE). The types of crops produced and the amount of crop inputs will change in response to changes in climate and changes in the relative cost of inputs as they are affected by GHG reduction policies and climate adaptation strategies in other sectors. This project looked at two scenarios; a crop diversification scenario and a nitrogen use scenario to determine the impact on energy use of these possible reactions to climate change.
Understanding Climate Change Adaptation. Province of Ontario. Ontario has developed a two-phase approach to tackling climate change by creating a multi-faceted plan to fight it and taking effective actions to adapt to it.
Greenhouse gases: Some definitions. The Virtual Library on Urban Environmental Management, Dept. of Social Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, TOKYO - 152, Japan - Much of these harmful gases, natural and man-made, were targeted for reduction during the recently concluded COP3 conference in Kyoto. A brief description and effects of six gases are given below: | Carbon Dioxide | Nitrous Oxide | Methane | Hydrofluorocarbon gases | Perfluorocarbons | Sulphur Hexafluoride |
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program - The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1988. Its main objective was to assess scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to the understanding of human induced climate change, potential impacts of climate change and options for mitigation and adaptation. The IPCC has completed two assessment reports, developed methodology guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories, special reports and technical papers.
The Australian Dept. of Climate Change. The Department's role is to lead the development and coordination of Australia's climate change policies. We are responsible for policy advice, implementation and programs in three areas:
Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [2926 KB PDF]. This report does not revise or replace the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, but provides a reference that complements and is consistent with those guidelines. This report was accepted by the IPCC Plenary at its 16th session held in Montreal, 1-8 May, 2000.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Australian Livestock Sector - what do we know, what can we do? [560 KB pdf] Roger Hegarty, NSW Agriculture (Greenhouse and Agriculture Taskforce, 2001); Australian Dept. of Climate Change, GPO Box 621, CANBERRA ACT 2601 - As an issue, greenhouse gas emissions have provided a negative image for the livestock sector and efforts to address it have ‘fallen through the cracks’, with no organisation committing to develop solutions to the problem in a structured way.
Methane capture and combustion from swine manure treatment for Peralillo (Chile) [1456 KB pdf]. UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - In Dec. 2000, AgroSuper, the largest pork company in Chile, initiated a voluntary process to implement advanced waste management systems (anaerobic & aerobic digestion of hog manure), in order to reduce ghg emissions into the atmosphere.
Clean Development Mechanism in China - Taking a Proactive and Sustainable Approach [3282 KB pdf] - The World Bank - The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) offers important opportunities for sustainable development in China. The energy sector, in particular, could benefit through new approaches in energy efficiency and renewable energies. Emissions reduction options, which can be transferred to industrialized countries to meet their obligations under the Kyoto Protocol, are also available in other sectors.
Bruce T. Bowman, Archivist
Last Updated: Monday, December 19, 2016 10:33:04 AM