Health & Safety Issues



See Also



Food Safety: It's in Everyone's Hands,  OMAFRA Food Safety Video

Food Safety and Traceability Initiative OMAFRA. This funding will help facilities adopt food safety and traceability practices. These practices help producers and processors respond to market demands for safe food and improve product tracking.

Farm Safety Association Fact Sheets,   Farm Safety Association, Suite 22-23, 340 Woodlawn Road West, Guelph, Ontario N1H 7K6

  • Fact Sheet - Farmer's Lung: It takes your breath away!  Farmer's lung is an allergy caused by dust from moldy hay, straw  and grain. In early stages of the disease, it can seem like nothing   worse than a nagging winter cold. If ignored, the allergic reaction can cause permanent lung damage. The victim may be forced to  give up farming and -- in some cases -- may suffer from permanent disability or even death.
  • Fact Sheet - Manure Gas Dangers:  Many livestock operations use liquid manure systems as a fast  and economical method of handling animal wastes.  These systems, particularly if they are incorporated into the barn  construction, may pose a serious hazard because of gases  produced. Decomposing animal manure gives off a variety of gases including hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and methane. Of all  these gases, hydrogen sulphide or more commonly called manure gas, is the most dangerous. Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) has been  responsible for many animal deaths as well as occasional human  deaths.   [990311]
  • Fact Sheet - Fencing Farm Ponds, Lagoons & Other Hazardous Areas: [pdf] Each year in Ontario and Canada, there are a number of drowning in farm ponds, waterways and lagoons. The danger of drowning has increased dramatically with the widespread adoption of liquid manure systems. These hazardous areas pose some unique problems for landowners. The liability situation with respect to this area is unclear with few legal precedents to offer guidance.

Air Quality Inside Livestock Barns - Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) Factsheet - Agdex#: 400/717; Publication Date: 01/93; Order#: 93-001; Last Reviewed: 09/97 - Yves Choinière and J.A. Munroe. - In modern livestock barns, proper indoor air quality is imperative to maintain the health and productivity of farm workers and animals. Some problems related to the health of farm workers have been noticed, especially since the 1970's, coinciding with the rapid changes from small traditional farms to large intensive livestock operations.

Human Health Issues Associated with the Hog Industry (Jan. 1999) [266 KB pdf]  Melva Okun, Environmental Resource Program, School of Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,   - Section 1 -  includes research findings and information related to air issues (specific concerns for the health of workers employed in the hog industry; the effect on the physical and mental health of neighbors to hog ILOs; and some preliminary concerns for asthmatics living in proximity to such operations).  Section 2 -  covers groundwater issues associated with hog ILOs and the related health concerns of consuming water contaminated with nitrates. Section 3 -  includes some of the surface water issues that appear to be related to high nutrient waters. Section 4 - contains information about infectious disease concerns for workers and neighbors to such hog operations. In Section Five the findings are summarized and recommendations made. Full Report.

The Health of Our Air. 1999 [4321 KB pdf] Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada Report.  In this report, focus is on the effect of Canadian agriculture on the atmosphere. Specifically, to answer three questions:  1) How do farming practices affect the composition of the atmosphere?  2) What is the amount of agriculture's emissions to the air?  3) How can we reduce these emissions?

Air Quality Inside Livestock Barns. OMAFRA FactSheet - Yves Choinière and J.A. Munroe - Agdex#: 400/717; Publication Date: 01/93; Order#:93-001; Last Reviewed:09/97 - Introduction; Air quality requirements for farm animals; Air quality for livestock producers; Noxious gases; Calculation of exposure values; (OSHA,Ontario,1996); Calculation of exposure values where a STEV or a CEV is NOT indicated; Dust in livestock barns; Conclusion; Acknowledgements.

Intensive Livestock Operations Health and Quality of Life Among Eastern North Carolina Residents  - This 20-page document was prepared for the NC Department of Health and Human Services by Dr. Steve Wing and Research Associate Susanne Wolf of the Department of Epidemiology, UNC School of Public Health. It presents the results of a health survey conducted in three rural eastern NC communities in February 1999.

Floods: Minimizing Pollution and Health Risks.  Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, 520 Lafayette Road, St. Paul, MN 55155-4194  - Spring flooding in Minnesota can sometimes reach catastrophic levels in some areas. For example, due to the melting of record-breaking snowfalls in northwestern Minnesota in 1997, the Red River area experienced what climatologists called a "500-year flood." Because of the severity of this flood, many communities were overcome by the flood waters. Floods can create environmental problems if precautions are not taken to minimize pollution and health risks. Listed below is information on what Minnesota residents can do to protect their businesses, homes and families from environmental problems caused by floods.

Positive Human Health Effects of Wearing a Respirator in a Swine Barn [100 KB pdf].  James A. Dosman Antwifarms Project, PO. Box 597562  Chicago IL 60659, USA (Issue: Sept, 2000) - subjects participated in a laboratory session (baseline day), a 4-h exposure in a traditional swine room wearing the respirator (intervention day), and a 4-hour exposure in a traditional swine room without a respirator (non-intervention day). A N-95 disposable respirator can help to significantly reduce acute negative health effects in subjects not previously exposed to a swine barn environment.  (study conducted at Prairie Swine Ctr., Saskatoon, SK).

Poultry Workers' Health Studies.Dr. J.A. Dosman, Can. Ctr for Health & Safety in Agric. (CCHSA) , U. of Saskatchewan; Received a grant from the Medical Research Council of Canada to study the effect of the indoor air environment on poultry workers' respiratory health. The study involves measuring lung function and assessing respiratory symptoms on a random group of poultry workers in Saskatchewan, Alberta and Manitoba, and comparing these with symptoms and lung function in grain farmers who do not have poultry, and to rural-dwelling non-farmers. The second component of the study involves environmental measurements in a sample of poultry barns and relating these measurements to the changes in the poultry workers' respiratory symptoms and lung function. 

Manure as a Public Health Issue:  What Accountability and Directions for Livestock Agriculture? (June 2000) [pdf]. A Special Report of the George Morris Centre.  Al Mussell, Larry Martin. The contamination of the municipal water supply in Walkerton, Ontario with E. coli and the resulting human tragedy shocked the public. While we may never know the source of the contamination, an anxious public is looking for answers and livestock agriculture is a leading suspect.


Manure Storages & Toxic Gases

Beware of Manure Pit Hazards (2002).William McLeod, Howard J. Doss, Howard L. Person. Michigan State U.  The four main gases produced from decomposing manure are hydrogen sulfide, methane, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. In high concentrations, each of these gases may pose a health threat to humans and livestock.

Manure Storage Entering Procedures (2002). Robert Aherin and Lee Christianson, University of Illinois, Dept of Agric. & Biol. Eng.;  Agriculture Safety & Health. Recognize that conditions are of greatest risk when manure is agitated or moved. Movement and agitation increase the release of dangerous gases, sometimes several fold. When agitating, pumping, or moving manure, take precautions to be sure that extra ventilation is provided to nearby areas (e.g., buildings over or near the manure storage). 

Manure Pit Accidents (2002)Iowa State University Extension. It's a scenario every livestock operator with a manure pit fears. However, everyone in a farming operation must know what to do if someone is found unconscious in a manure pit.  Multiple deaths are common in manure pit incidents. People often attempt rescues without proper equipment and become victims, too.

Hazardous atmospheres and confined spaces: Occupational Health and Safety Guidelines for Farming Operations in Ontario.(Sect. 7). Ont. Ministry of Labour.  The purpose of the guidelines is to help employers, supervisors and workers on farms recognize hazards and determine the ways they may best comply with their obligations under the Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA), and the relevant regulations. The guidelines provide general information to those in the workplace to help them identify specific hazards and dangerous situations. The guidelines may also provide the workplace parties with suggestions to consider in determining how to protect worker health and safety and to prevent injuries.

Transient Nature of Hazardous Conditions in Swine Barns Due to Manure Gases During Slurry Mixing (1992) [1900 KB pdf]. OMAFRA; Ontario Pork Industry Improvement Plan - Dr. N.K. Patni, Centre for Food and Animal Research, Agriculture Canada - includes summary of research results and subsequent recommendations.

Hydrogen Sulfide Production from Stored Liquid Swine Manure: A Laboratory Study (2000); J. Arogo, Dept of Biol. & Agric. Engineering, North Carolina State U., Raleigh, NC; R.H. Zhang, G.L. Riskowski, D.L. Day - Trans. of the ASAE 43(5): 1241-1245 - The production of hydrogen sulfide from stored liquid swine manure as influenced by the manure settling characteristics and the initial sulfate concentration was studied in the laboratory; sulfide production rate was highest for all three manure layers during the first 5-10 days of storage.

Hydrogen Sulphide Emissions and Safety (Agdex 086-2; Mar. 2004). Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development; Producers need to be aware and informed of the dangers of being exposed to hydrogen sulphide for long periods. Use all necessary measures to protect yourself against exposure, and seek medical help if you experience any symptoms or illness related to exposure to noxious gases. 

Methane Safety (2004).Alberta Agriculture, & Rural Development. Methane (CH4) is a major greenhouse gas. It is produced during anaerobic decomposition of manure and accumulates around manure storage areas. Methane emissions from manure depend on the way manure is managed (liquid manure systems produce more methane than solid manure systems) and environmental factors such as temperature and moisture (warmer temperatures and moist conditions will produce greater amounts of methane). 


Pathogen Issues

The Effect Of Farm Liquid Waste Application On Receiving Water Quality: Final Report (1991) [4082 KB [pdf] D. Dean, M.E. Foran, Ausable Bayfield Conservation Authority. 12 manure spreading events were monitored in 1989 and 1990 in order to further understand how soil properties, soil type, and rate of manure application effect tile drain water quality. Subsurface tile drains became contaminated shortly following manure application for 9 of 12 manure spreading events monitored. It appears as though flow in the tile drains is required for contamination to occur at the time of manure application.

Sources and Mechanisms of Delivery of E.coli (bacteria) Pollution to the Lake Huron Shoreline of Huron County (2005) [5859 KB pdf]. Ont. Min. of Environ. In 2004, the Lake Huron Sci. Committee (LHSC) was initiated by MOE, in consultation with the OMAF and Environment Canada, in response to public concerns over bacterial (E. coli) pollution along the southeast shoreline of Lake Huron.

Cryptosporidium: Could It Be In Your Water? (Apr. 2004).  Ron Fleming, Ridgetown College, University of Guelph, (From Proceedings of Swine Production and the Environment Seminar, "Living With Your Neighbours", March 26, 1997, Shakespeare, Ontario) - Part A - A Soil Macro-what? - You have heard by now of soil macropores - those cracks, openings, continuous pores in the soil that help aerate and drain the soil.   Part B - Cryptosporidium and Pigs - Cryptosporidium (crip-toe-spor-ID-ee-um) is a protozoan, a single-celled parasite, that lives in the intestines of animals and people. This microscopic pathogen causes a disease called cryptosporidiosis. The dormant (inactive) form of Cryptosporidium, called an oocyst (O-o-sist), is excreted in the feces. 

Overland and Near-Surface Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum from Vegetated and Nonvegetated Surfaces (2004). J.R. Traska, Prasanta K. Kalitaa, M.S. Kuhlenschmidtb, R.D. Smithb& T.L. Funka - a Dept of Agric. & Biol. Eng.,U. of Illinois, 1304 West Pennsylvania Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801; b Dept of Vet. Pathobiology, U. of Illinois, 2001 South Lincoln, Urbana, IL 61802.  J. Env. Qual  33: 984-993- Effects of land slopes, vegetation, and rainfall intensities on oocyst transport were examined using a tilting soil chamber with two compartments, one with bare ground and the other with brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) vegetation . The vegetative surface was very effective in reducing C. parvum in surface runoff; results indicate that the VFS can be a best management practice for controlling C. parvum in runoff from animal production facilities.

Survival of Pathogenic Bacteria in Liquid Manure Storages [73 KB pdf] (December, 2004). Final Report Project 03/14 for Ontario Pork; Ron Fleming, & Malcolm MacAlpine, Ridgetown Coll., U. of Guelph. A study set out to measure die-off rates of bacteria in liquid manure storages on swine farms and to establish which criteria, if any, have the biggest impact on these die-off rates.

Pathogen Survival in Swine Manure Environments and Transmission of Human Enteric Illness: A Review (2003) [99  KB pdf]  - Tat Yee Guan and Richard A. Holley, Dept of Food Science, U. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2. J. Environ. Qual. 32:383–392 (2003) - Generally, pathogens survived longer in environmental samples at cool temperatures but differences were seen in liquid and solid manure. Based on actual data plus some data extrapolated from cattle manure environments, holding manure at 25°C for 90 d will render it free from the pathogens considered (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia).

Movement of Coliform Bacteria and Nutrients in Ground Water Flowing through Basalt and Sand Aquifers (2001).  James A. Entry, and Neal Farmer, J. of Environ. Qual. 30:1533-1539.   Full Text [316 KB pdf] - Large-scale deposition of animal manure can result in contamination of surface and ground water and in potential transfer of disease-causing enteric bacteria to animals or humans. We measured total coliform bacteria (TC), fecal coliform bacteria (FC), NO3, NH4, total P, and PO4 in ground water flowing from basalt and sand aquifers, in wells into basalt and sand aquifers, in irrigation water, and in river water.

The Walkerton Commission of Inquiry. Public inquiry into the May 2000 E. coli contamination of the water supply in Walkerton, Ontario
    -   Part One of the Walkerton Commission of Inquiry
    -  Part Two of the Walkerton Commission of Inquiry

The Management of Manure in Ontario with Respect to Water Quality. [2981 KB pdf] (Mar. 6, 2001). M.J. Goss, K.S. Rollins, K. McEwan, J.R. Shaw, H. Lammers-Helps, U. of Guelph. This draft paper has been prepared as a background document for the Walkerton Inquiry. It is intended to generate and inform discussion about the safety of drinking water among parties with standing, relevant experts, and the public.

Cryptosporidium/Coccidial Research (13 Jan., 2000). Division of Biology, Kansas State U.;  Basic biology and life-cycle of Cryptosporidium; Bibliography on Cryptosporidium (29 topics!); Commercial sources of Cryptosporidium reagents; Cryptosporidium parvum host species checklist; Give a gift for Cryptosporidium research; Links on Cryptosporidium and other parasitological topics; Measurements of viable oocysts; Potential therapies for cryptosporidiosis in humans; Provide a grant for Cryptosporidium research; Research on Cryptosporidium at Kansas State University; Taxonomic chronology of Cryptosporidium spp.; Waterborne/foodborne outbreaks.

The Effect of Diet on E. coli 0157:H7 in Cattle (Nov., 2000). Rena Orr. International Food Safety Network (iFSN) Since September 1998, there has been conflicting information on the effect of diet on E. coli shedding from cattle. The conflict arises in part from the effect of diet on the ability of E. coli to develop acid resistance.

Extent and Magnitude of Agricultural Sources of Cryptosporidium in Surface Water [110 KB PDF]   (1999) - Ron Fleming, Doug Hocking, Heather Fraser, and David Alves. Ridgetown College, U. of Guelph. In 1998, a study was begun at Ridgetown College, U. of Guelph, to investigate levels of Cryptosporidium in livestock manure storages, tile drain water and surface water in southern Ontario.  Objectives: 1) To assess the viability of Cryptosporidium in liquid wine manure storages.  2) To determine the potential for a relationship between Cryptosporidium occurrence in storages and tile drains.  3) To quantify contributions from various sources in different watersheds, and;  4) To investigate the relationship between the occurrence of Crytosporidium and other water quality (and manure) indicators such as Giardia, E. coli and turbidity.

Cryptosporidium in Livestock, Manure Storages, and Surface Waters in Ontario (Sept. 1997) (184 KB pdf). Ron Fleming, Jennifer McLellan, David Alves, Don Hilborn, Katarina Pintar, Malcolm MacAlpine for the Ontario Farm Environ. Coalition, Ont. Min. Agric. Food & Rural Affairs and Agric. & Agri-Food Canada. Cryptosporidium (krip-toe-spor-id-ee-um) spp. is a protozoan parasite that reproduces in vertebrates. It is most commonly known as a cause of gastroenteritis in people and can cause relatively large outbreaks of human illness. In the past, agricultural sources have been implicated as a contributing factor in major outbreaks of the disease. This study was initiated in light of the scarcity of information about levels of Cryptosporidium in manure storages and tile drainage water, and in an attempt to put together information and recommendations for farmers.

A Study to Identify the Seasonal Variations in Well-Water Contamination and Survey Farm Family Health (1994) [236 KB pdf].  M.J. Goss, D.A.J. Barry and J.B. Wilson, Univ. of Guelph.  The first stage of an investigation into the seasonality in the quality of well water on farms in Southern Ontario, and the health of farm families drinking water contaminated with bacteria used as indicators of faecal contamination.

E. Coli Reference Center, Dept of Veterinary Science, The Pennsylvania State University. The laboratory functions as a reference center by accepting diagnostic cultures for characterization from outside sources.  Standard strains, micro-screening sera, and testing kits are available to diagnostic laboratories and research institutions in the USA and Canada for a nominal fee.

Pathogenic Bacteria - Virtual Museum of Bacteria - various good links on the subject.

Escherichia coli O157:H7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Department of Health and Human Services - USA; Public Inquiries; (404) 639-3534; (800) 311-3435; 1600 Clifton Rd., Atlanta, GA 30333 U.S.A; (404) 639-3311; Frequently Asked Questions - What is Escherichia coli O157:H7?;  How is E. coli O157:H7 spread?; What illness does E.coli O157:H7 cause?; How is E. coli O157:H7 infection diagnosed?; How is the illness treated?; What are the long term consequences of infection?; What can be done to prevent the infection?; What can you do to prevent E. coli O157:H7 infection? 

Ultraviolet Disinfection Systems, Trojan Technologies Inc., 3020 Gore Road, London, ON, Canada N5V 4T7; tel: 519-457-3400;  fax: 519-457-3030 - Ultraviolet light, at the germicidal wavelength of 253.7 nanometers, alters the genetic (DNA) material in cells so that bacteria, viruses, molds, algae and other microorganisms can no longer reproduce. The microorganisms are considered dead, and the risk of disease from them is eliminated.  As the water flows past the UV lamps in UV disinfection systems, the microorganisms are exposed to a lethal dose of UV energy. UV dose is measured as the product of UV light intensity times the exposure time within the UV lamp array. Microbiologists have determined the effective dose of UV energy (expressed in microwatt- sec./cm2) needed to destroy pathogens as well as indicator organisms found in wastewater.

Escherichia coli Factsheet -Public Health Agency of Canada.

Reducing Risks from E.coli 0157 on the Organic Farm (111 KB pdf) David G. Patriquin (Biology Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S.) Canadian Organic Growers, Eco-Farm & Garden, Summer, 2000 - E. coli 0157 is a bacterial pathogen of the human intestinal tract which is carried in certain species of livestock and wildlife without ill-effect. Such organisms are termed zoonotics.  E.coli 0157 is particularly hazardous because of the very low number of organisms that can cause infection and because of serious complications that can result from infection, especially in infants and the elderly. 

Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). USDA

E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella: Status on U.S. Dairy Farms.   APHIS-USDA. Cattle have been implicated as the most important source of E. coli O157:H7. Prevalence estimates vary, but it appears that although a substantial percentage of both dairy herds and beef feedlots have infected animals, the actual number of individual infected animals at any one time is relatively low.

Food Safety & Inspection Service, USDA. The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is the public health agency in the U.S. Department of Agriculture responsible for ensuring that the nation's commercial supply of meat, poultry, and egg products is safe, wholesome, and correctly labeled and packaged.

Human and Animal Pathogens in Manure [52 KB pdf] Merle E. Olson, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary.  Animal feces may contain pathogens infectious to both humans and animals. As a result food animals are incriminated in many waterborne and foodborne outbreaks. It is critical for human health, animal health and agriculture sustainability reasons that water and food supplies be protected from contamination by animal feces.

Algae, Cyanobacteria and Water Quality. (2002) [pdf] N. Scott, PFRA, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada. Algae and cyanobacteria are tiny organisms that occur naturally in saltwater and freshwater. Individual organisms can often only be seen under a microscope, although with some species, individuals can join together to form colonies visible to the naked eye. It is important to understand the similarities and differences between algae and cyanobacteria as both groups can have distinct impacts on surface water quality. 

Tracing the Source of E. coli Fecal Contamination of Water Using rep-PCR (MLMMI 00-02-08);  Full Report [85 KB pdf]. Techniques which could trace E. coli water contamination to its source are needed. Genetic fingerprinting is one such technique. We found that the fingerprints of the 91 E. coli strains were quite different from each other. No groups of E. coli fingerprints corresponded to a particular animal. It appears that in Manitoba livestock and in the human population there is a wide variety of E. coli genetic types.

Measurement of pathogen transfer in aerosols following land application of manure [pdf]; Phil Hobbs, Dave Davies1, Jon Williams and Helen Warren1Inst of Grassland and Env. Res., North Wyke Res. Station, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB  1Inst. of Grassland and Env.  Res., Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, SY23 3EB, UK - Aerosols containing pathogens can travel significant distances; Desiccation is the most difficult problem for microbial species to remain viable. At take-off as either a dry or wet microbe, changes in water content will inevitably follow.


Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

Estrogenic Hormone Dissipation In Agricultural Soil (2001) [56 KB pdf poster]. M. Colucci, and E. Topp, AAFC, London, ON; This finding indicates that extractable estrogenic transformation products did not accumulate. In summary, 17b-estradiol, estrone and 17a-ethynylestradiol were readily biodegradable under a range of conditions typical of a temperate growing environment.

Effect Of Aeration On The Persistence Of 17beta-Estradiol In Livestock Manure (2001) [154 KB pdf poster]. M. Colucci, and E. Topp, AAFC, London, ON.  In summary, on the basis of chemical analyses and measurements with a bioassay, aeration promoted a rapid decrease in 17b-estradiol concentrations and in total estrogenic activity in liquid swine manure.

Rapid Mineralization of The Endocrine Disrupting Chemical 4-Nonylphenol in Soil. (2000) [763 KB pdf poster]. E. Topp and Alvin Starratt, AAFC, London, ON.  These results indicate that microorganisms which can metabolize 4- nonylphenol are found in a wide variety of soils including some obtained from the Canadian Arctic which were presumably pristine with respect to anthropogenic exposure to this chemical. We conclude that nonylphenol- degrading microorganisms are probably naturally widespread in soils.

Identification, Environmental Fate, And Mitigation Of Biological And Chemical Contaminants Including Antibiotics, Hormones, Enteric Bacteria, And Genes Encoding Bacterial Pathogenicity And Antibiotic Resistance. (2000) [669 KB pdf poster]. E. Topp, Kam Leung, Bonnie Ball-Coelho, and George Lazarovits.  Development of tools for studying the fate of enteric bacteria, and genes determining pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance; Detection of antibiotic resistance in enteric and environmental bacteria; Environmental persistence, movement, and impacts of contaminants associated with swine manure; Effect of storage conditions on bacterial and chemical contaminants in manure. 

The role of animal behaviour in the study of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. (2004) Animal Behaviour68 (4), 665-676.  The purposes of this review are four-fold. First, we provide a primer on EDCs. Second, we summarize current knowledge about endocrine disruption of animal behaviour. Third, we describe the role that we envision for behaviour in the field of ecotoxicology. Finally, we hope to stimulate a dialogue between animal behaviourists and ecotoxicologists that will enhance our understanding of these environmental contaminants and their impacts on animal populations.  [2011-04-02]

Assessing the Risk and Extent of Endocrine Disruptors.   The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). One of the most disquieting discoveries in recent years concerns the possible roles of environmental chemicals on endocrine systems. Endocrine systems are present not only in humans but in "higher" animals such as birds, fish, and mammals. Endocrine systems coordinate and regulate many important body functions such as growth and maturation, behaviour, reproduction and embryo development. They do this by making and releasing hormones which act as "chemical messengers." Certain tissues in the body have very specific receptors for the hormones. By interacting with these receptors, the hormones trigger responses.

Threats to Sources of Drinking Water and Aquatic Ecosystem Health in Canada: [ pdf]  Env. Canada.
There is growing concern internationally about environmental risks posed by endocrine disrupting substances (EDS). These chemicals include a wide variety of environmental contaminants that can exert a diverse array of effects on growth, development and reproduction in biota.

The Community Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters - a range of substances suspected of interfering with the hormone systems of humans and wildlife - COM(1999) 706 - Commission to the Council and the European Parliament - Existing legislation does not necessarily take account of the adverse effects of endocrine disrupters. In this communication, the Commission proposes a strategy comprising short, medium and long-term action to tackle the problem.


Differentiating Management of  Water Resources and Waste in Urban Areas [1200 KB pdf]. Ralf Otterpohl, Andrea Albold and Martin Oldenburg,  Otterpohl Wasserkonzepte, Kanalstraße 52, D 23552 Lübeck, Germany.  Tel: +49-451-70 200-51, EM:; New integrated sanitation and waste management systems will mostly have to respect different qualities of matter from human settlements: Blackwater with biowaste, graywater, stormwater runoff and non-biodegradable waste. Based on this distinction 9 differentiating and 1 mixing systems with resources management are presented. Some of them require careful examination in selected pilot projects. .

Controlling Ammonia Gas In Swine Buildings[157 KB pdf]. Al Heber, Don Jones, Al Sutton - Agricultural and Biological Engineering,  Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service  - Ammonia is the most important gas healthwise found in swine buildings on a day-to-day basis because it can occur at levels high enough to be an irritant to the respiratory system. The recommended maximum gas concentrations suggested by OSHA (25 ppm) are much higher than those suggested by agricultural scientists in Europe (10 ppm). 




Bruce T. Bowman, Archivist
Last Updated: Thursday, July 26, 2018 01:05:55 PM