Manure into Gold: A strategic framework for manure management in Ontario [344 KB pdf] (Mar. 2, 2004) Ernest Lowe, Ivan Weber, Sustainable Systems Inc., 300 Frank H. Ogawa Plaza, Suite 210, Oakland, CA. 94612- Prepared for: Centre for Research in Earth and Space Technology (CRESTech), 4850 Keele St. Toronto, ON M3J 3K1; Tel: (416) 665-5413 Fax: (416) 665-2032 - This report proposes a strategic context for manure management in Ontario and focuses on priorities for short-term and long-term research and development financing. It proposes a possible mission statement that establishes a sustainable economic development context for this strategy:
A Farm Scale Anaerobic Digester: Phase 1. Construction Start Up and Operation [1151 KB pdf] (Nov. 1984) Report I-673 - R.P. Hocking, G.E. Timbers, J. Fallis, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada - Report on design, construction and operational procedures for a manure digester built in 1977 on an Ontario farm and operated for 28 months.
Biogas Production Facility on Farms - A 1985 Look At The Recent Experience [1288 KB pdf] (Jan. 1986) - Ralph G. Winfield & Assoc., RR. #1, Belmont, Ontario, N0L 1B0 - The primary objective of this report is to bring together and evaluate the on-farm experience of anaerobic digester users in Canada. Most (eight) of the farm-scale units are in Ontario, two are in Quebec and one each in PEI and Alberta. In addition a number of units in the NE United States were evaluated for comparison purposes and to extend the study group to include the simpler `plug-flow' design prevalent there on dairy farms. (excellent assessment/overview); Research Paper [117 KB pdf] presented at 1986 Annual AIC Conference, Saskatoon, July 6-10, 1986.
An Assessment of Agriculture Canada's Anaerobic Digestion Program [502 KB pdf] - May 1987, Report 1-933 - P. Van Die, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Engineering and Statistical Research Centre; Summary of Canadian Digester Study over a 13-yr period. Emphasis was initially given to the study of anaerobic digestion rather than designing systems for agriculture. It was found that anaerobic digesters can be operated year round in Canada's cold climate and the biogas produced can readily be used for space heating or generating electricity. NOTE: Report P.69 contains list of approx. 2 doz. A.D. projects conducted in the 1980's and funded by the federal government.
The Economics of Biogas in the Hog Industry (254 KB pdf). A Report Prepared for Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) by The Canadian Agricultural Energy End Use Data and Analysis Centre ( CAEEDAC) (Fall 1999) - Climate change and the need for renewable energy have emerged as two of the most crucial issues that researchers, practitioners and corporations will have to deal with in the next millenium. These two issues have come to a head in Saskatchewan as the structure and practices of the hog industry have been experiencing significant changes. In particular, there has been a shift from small hog operations (20 to 30 sows) to larger and more intensive operations (600 to 1200 sows). Intensive livestock operations have given rise to several environmental issues concerning methane emissions and the disposal or spreading of manure. Public concerns about climate change, air pollution, water quality and rising energy consumption all place pressure on producers and industry to reduce emissions and promote pollution-free sources of energy.
Pilot Plant Demonstration of a Three-Stage Waste Treatment Technology (271 KB pdf). S. Danesh, D. Small, D. Hodgkinson, DGH Engineering Ltd., St. Andrews, MB R1A 3N5 (Aug. 2000) - evaluation of the performance of a Taiwanese manure treatment technology at the pilot plant scale under Manitoba climate and farming conditions. This treatment technology consists of solid-liquid separation, anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment.... The greatest amount of treatment occurred in the anaerobic section of the system approximately 50 to 75 percent reduction in total COD). The solid-liquid separator reduced total COD by 10 to 30 percent and the aerobic section reduced total COD by up to approximately 10 percent.
Design, Construction And Testing of an Energy Efficient Innovative Farm-scale Anaerobic Digester [573 KB] (May 1984). A.E. Ghaly, R.K. Singh, Dept of Agricultural Engineering, Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia; funded by Energy Research and Development in Agriculture and Food (ERDAF), Agriculture Canada - Overall objective of the program is to use the innovative design concept of anaerobic digesters (tested on a pilot plant scale and proven to be technically and economically feasible) to design, fabricate, and test a farm scale anaerobic digester. This proposal concentrates on identifying and solving the scale-up and operational problems encountered when transferring the technology from a pilot plant scale to a farm scale.
Evaluation Of The Performance Of Different Anaerobic Digestion Technologies For Solid Waste Treatment [55 KB pdf]. Mariana Chavez-Vazquez and David M. Bagley, Dept of Civil Engineering, U. of Toronto, 35 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A4 - presented at CSCE/EWRI of ASCE Environmental Engineering Conf., Niagara 2002 - this paper presents a framework that has been developed for evaluating anaerobic solid waste digestion. This framework provides a useful tool for evaluating the technical capabilities of different technologies, predicting the quantity of the products, and ultimately, making decisions as to which technologies best meet local needs.
Focus On Alternative Fuels: Biogas [435 KB pdf]. Brian Sexton, E.I.T., Alberta Agriculture, Lethbridge, AB T1J 4V6; Tel. (403) 381-5885; Fax (403) 381-5806 - How much biogas can I produce? Is it worth it? See table for swine & dairy outputs.
Biodigester Development in Saskatchewan; CSALE Occasional Paper #11 [66 KB pdf]. Shawn Halter, Centre for Studies in Agriculture, Law and the Environment, U. of Sask. - A Report On Energy Cogeneration Options In The Canadian Agricultural Sector. A positive externality is created from the use of bio-digesters when volatile gases that would otherwise enter the atmosphere as " greenhouse gases" are captured. The capture of greenhouse gasses suggests that bio-digesters are a potential technology for earning greenhouse gas credits given the existence of a carbon credit trading market involving the exchange of emission permits analogous to that of any other commodity.
Methane Generation From Human, Animal, and Agricultural Wastes [658 KB pdf] (1977). National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. This report discusses the means by which the natural process of anaerobic fermentation can be controlled by man for his benefit, and how the methane generated by this process can be used as fuel. The report includes a bibliography of more detailed works on the subject and a list of the panel members to whom technologists in developing countries may turn for direct assistance with specific problems, if necessary.
Methane Recovery from Animal Manures: The Current Opportunities Casebook, Sept. 1998; [2794 KB pdf] NREL/SR-580-25145; byPhilip Lusk, Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC on behalf of National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 - Anaerobic Digestion benefits farmers monetarily and mitigates possible manure pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality. Moreover, rural economic development will benefit from the implicit multiplier effect resulting from jobs created by implementing digester systems. Promising future waste-to-profit activities may add to the economic performance of AD. New end-use applications, which provide added value to co-products, are discussed.
Manure Management-Related Information
Canada Animal Waste Management Guide [247 KB pdf] (1972). Canada Animal Waste Management Guide Committee, Canada Committee on Agricultural Engineering - information still relevant today!
Bacterial Pollution Indicators and Rainfall-Induced Runoff, Greenbelt Farm Drainage System. (1972). Canada Dept. of Agriculture A.D. Tenant et al., Env. Protection Service. [868 KB] - extensive data set of bacteria content in drainage water.
Comprehensive Evaluation of Agricultural Waste and Runoff Management for Water Quality Control. (1975) Eds. B.J. Adams, A.F.MacKenzie, MacDonald College, QC [1405 KB]
Agricultural Code of Practice (Ontario) (1976) [1702 KB pdf] - 42 page booklet for the 1972 Ontario Ag Code of Practice - still quite relevant in many respects!
Livestock and Poultry Wastes in the Great Lakes Basin: Environmental Concerns and Management Issues (1976). G.E. Bangay, Environment Canada. [2404 KB]
Canada Animal Manure Management Guide. [1053 KB pdf] Publication 1534, 1979. Agriculture Canada - update of the 1972 version above.Farm Animal Manures in the Canadian Environment (1983) [427 KB pdf]. NRC Associate Committee On Scientific Criteria For Environmental Quality, National Research Council Of Canada - excellent review of many aspects of animal manures, including pathogens, parasites, bacterial & fungal pathogens, micronutrients & heavy metals, manure gases odours - 139 pages.
Pittock Watershed: Manure Management and Water Quality Sub-Basin Study. (1984). B. Glasman & B. Hawkins, Upper Thames River Conservation Authority [2900 KB]
Manure Management Awareness Program, Summary Report (1986). Tracey Ryan, Ausable Bayfield Conservation Authority [1857 KB]
Impacts of Livestock Manure On Water Quality in Ontario- An Appraisal of Current Knowledge, (1991)[230 KB pdf]. Prepared for Ontario Ministry of Environment Purchase Order A-09183, by M.H. Miller, T.C. Martin, E.G. Beauchamp, R.G. Kachanoski, H.R. Whiteley. The Centre for Soil and Water Conservation, Univ. of Guelph - This report provides: (1) a detailed assessment of our current understanding of the impact of livestock manure management on water quality with particular reference to Ontario; (2) a review of current guidelines on manure management in Ontario with recommended changes where justified by current understanding; and (3) a prioritized list of research needs specific to Ontario.
The Effect Of Farm Liquid Waste Application On Receiving Water Quality: Final Report (1991). Ausable Bayfield Conservation Authority [4082 KB pdf]
Siting Livestock and Poultry Operations for the 21st Century - Symposium Proceedings [1847 KB] (1995); Can. Agri-Food Res. Council, Ottawa, Ontario, July 13-14, 1995; Edited by Dr. J.A. Munroe - The objectives were to assess the current issues related to location of animal agriculture operations and its impact on the environment, and to identify future opportunities in the research and technology areas to maintain animal agriculture's key role in the Canadian economy.
Livestock - Environment Interactions: ISSUES AND OPTIONS [541 KB pdf] (1996) Henning Steinfeld, Cees de Haan, Harvey Blackburn;Commission of the European Communities;Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations; World Bank. This report is intended to contribute to solving one of today's most crucial agricultural dilemmas: how to find a balance between a fast growing global demand for food and the need to sustain the natural resource base of land, water, air and biological diversity.
Guidelines for The Utilization of Biosolids and Other Wastes on Agricultural Land [190 KB pdf] (March 1996; rev 01/98), OMAFRA & Ministry of Environment; Purpose of this document is to facilitate the use of biosolids and other waste materials on agricultural land, while protecting environmental quality, consumer and animal health, food quality and the productivity of the land.
Livestock & The Environment: Finding a balance [751 KB pdf] (1997).Cees de Haan, Henning Steinfeld, Harvey Blackburn - Study coordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organization - This report is intended to contribute to solving one of today's most crucial agricultural dilemmas: how to find a balance between a fast growing global demand for food and the need to sustain the natural resource base of land, water, air and biological diversity.
Balancing phosphine in manure fermentation (1997) [94 KB pdf]. F. Eismann, D. Glindemann and A. Bergmann, P. Kuschk ; J. of Env. Sci. and Health Part B: 32 (6): 955-968 - The evolution of phosphine gas during the anaerobic batch fermentation of fresh swine manure was detected and correlated to the production of methane and hydrogen sulphide. A close temporal relationship between phosphine liberation and methane formation was found - manure has to be considered more as a sink of phosphine rather than a phosphine-generating medium
Guidance Manual for the Design, Construction and Operations of Constructed Wetlands for Rural Applications in Ontario, (Nov.,1999) [1379 KB pdf] by Stantec Consulting Ltd, R&TT, Alfred College (University of Guelph), and South Nation Conservation (Funded by the Canadapt Program of theAgricultural Adaptation Council, Ontario; The following manual provides a review of considerations and steps required for the design, construction and operation of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in rural applications (i.e. livestock operations, food processing, septic waste treatment, etc.).
Resource Catalog of Information on Agricultural Best Management Practices That Positively Influence Climate Change (2001) [274 KB pdf];Soil Conservation Canada. Catalog of where to find information on agricultural practices as they relate to climate change. This publication is the result of a two-month literature search that compiled extension and research information for producers to help them better understand climate change and how the adoption of best management practices can positively affect our climate.
Animal Diet Modification to Decrease the Potential for Nitrogen and Phosphorus Pollution [177 KB pdf]; CAST (July 2002). Terry Klopfenstein, Dept of Animal Sci., U. of Nebraska, Lincoln. This issue paper outlines the technologies and approaches that poultry and livestock producers can use to decrease the amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus entering the environment. This study focuses on two nutrients and addresses two environmental concerns: volatilization and manure nutrient distribution. Decreasing the nitrogen and phosphorus excreted by poultry, swine, or cattle can minimize these concerns.
Nitrous Oxide Emissions and the Anthropogenic Nitrogen in Wastewater and Solid Waste. 2002. [129 KB pdf].Barton, Philip K. and James W. Atwater. J. Environ. Engineering 128 (2): 137-150. Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of British Columbia, 2324 Main Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4. Excellent review paper on human impacts on the nitrogen cycle and on nitrous oxide emissions - In the 20th century, human interference in the nitrogen cycle has caused a doubling of the global nitrogen fixation rate (an element critical in the proteins of all organisms), thereby intensifying global nitrous oxide (N2O) production during microbial nitrification and denitrification.
Mathematical Modelling of Manure Production by Pig Farms. Effect Of Feeding And Housing Conditions (2003). [235 KB pdf]. Dourmad, Jean-Yves1, Candido Pomar2, Daniel Massť2 . 1 INRA Joint Research Unit for Pig and Calf Production, 35590 Saint-Gilles, France; 2 AAFC, Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre, C.P. 90, Lennoxville, QC, J1M 1Z3 - Eastern Nutrition Conference 2003 - A mathematical model was developed from literature data to predict the volume and composition of the effluent produced by pig farms. In the model, all nutrient fluxes starting from those entering the farm with the feeds up to those leaving the piggery with the slurry are considered.
A Survey And Discussion Of Lysimeters And A Bibliography On Their Construction And Performance (USDA, 1940) [341 KB pdf] (489 references). Includes information on a soil-block lysimeter with self-recording weighing mechanism used at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed, Coshocton, Ohio.
Minor Elements in Canadian Soils (1979) [249 KB pdf]. J.A. McKeague, J.G. Desjardins, and M.S. Wolynetz, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. A project to study background levels of minor elements in Canadian soils.
Cropping, Tillage and Land Management Practices in Southwestern Ontario (1984) [4039 KB pdf]. Ont. Inst. of Pedology. The survey involved on-site interviews with 1026 farmers randomly selected in eleven counties of Southwestern Ontario. The interview was based on a questionnaire designed to provide information concerning the nature and extent of cropping, tillage, and land management practices in an agriculturally intensive area of Ontario.
Bibliography for Soil Conservation Practices (1984) [119 KB pdf]. Mary Ellen Foran, Ont. Inst. of Pedology. (list of refernces covering period, 1974 - 1983)
Cropping, Tillage and Land Management Practices in Southwestern Ontario. (1986) [1231 KB pdf]. Dell Coleman (Env. Canada) and Peter Roberts (OMAF). This report represents the results of a survey conducted on 1,115 farms in southwestern Ontario in the fall of 1986. The purpose of the survey was to provide a detailed data base for the Soil and Water Environmental Enhancement Program (SWEEP).
Understanding Soil Conservation Behaviour: A Critical Review. (1990) [493 KB pdf]. Centre for Soil and Water Conservation, U. of Guelph. This volume is primarily a critical assessment of previous research on the adoption of soil conservation practices. It is concerned with work that has explored the cultural aspects of soil conservation in attempts to reduce land degradation.
Bruce T. Bowman, Archivist