Modifications to Manure Spreading Equipment for Improved Application and for Minimizing Nutrient Losses. [3500 KB pdf]. Eastern Canada Soil and Water Conservation Centre. The purpose of this fact sheet is to describe modifications which can be made to conventional manure spreading equipment to improve application and minimize nutrient losses. (excellent photos).
Manure Application Equipment (Chap 4.5, Nutrient Management Guide) [1300 KB pdf]
Choosing and Calibrating Manure Application Equipment [164 KB pdf] (Nutrient Management Fact Sheet #6). Tables 1 and 2 describe the advantages and disadvantages of the major kinds of manure application equipment currently being used.Effect of fall-applied manure practices on runoff, sediment, and nutrient surface transport from silage corn in south coastal British Columbia (2002). L.J.P. van Vliet1, B.J. Zebarth, and G. Derksen. 1Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, AAFC, Box 1000, Agassiz, BC V0M 1A0; Can. J. Soil Sci. 82: 445-456. Even though total nutrient loads were lower with the relay crop treatment, all fall manure treatments including the relay crop resulted in nutrient loads above guidelines for the first three runoff events immediately following application.
Influence of the time and rate of liquid-manure application on yield and nitrogen utilization of silage corn in south coastal British Columbia (1996) [187 KB pdf]. B.J. Zebarth1, J.W. Paul1, O. Schmidt; R. McDougall - 1Pacific Agriculture Research Ctr (Agassiz), AAFC, Box 1000, Agassiz, BC V0M 1A0; - Can. J. Soil Sci. 76: 153–164. Selection of proper spring application rates for manure and inorganic fertilizer were found to be equally important in minimizing residual soil nitrate at harvest. Apparent recovery of applied N in the crop ranged from 0 to 33% for manure and from 18 to 93% for inorganic fertilizer.
Surface-Banded and Broadcast Dairy Manure Effects on Tall Fescue Yield and Nitrogen Uptake (1999) - Shabtai Bittmana, C.Grant Kowalenkoa,, Derek E. Hunta,and Orlando Schmidt aPacific Agri-Food Res. Ctr., AAFC, Agassiz, BC V0M 1A0. Agronomy Journal 91:826-833 - objective of this study was to compare the response of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) to N in dairy (Bos taurus) slurry manure applied with a splash plate (broadcasting) or a drag-shoe (surface banding) applicator, and broadcast mineral fertilizer, in spring, summer, and autumn.
Liquid manure banding benefits forage production in British Columbia - Soil Conservation Canada. Ongoing research in B.C. is providing farmers with the know-how to use higher rates of manure in an economical and environmentally sustainable manner to produce forages.
Composted manure has a good fit with organic growers - Soil Conservation Canada. A unique composting project that makes good use of a growing supply of poultry manure and yard wastes could be an important nutrient source for organic crop producers in B.C.'s Lower Mainland.
Manure powers forage crop benefits - Soil Conservation Canada. The B.C. Peace River Region farmers both describe a dramatic difference in forage stands on their respective farms after manure application.
Calculation Of Manure Application Rates [pdf] Manitoba Agriculture - Depending on the type of manure and how it is stored and applied, the nitrogen and phosphorus in manure may supply crop needs for an entire growing season. In addition to these nutrients, manure contains potash, several trace elements and large amounts of organic matter.
Manure Application Rate Calculator (MARC 2008) - is manure management planning software for Manitoba. MARC 2008 is a more advanced version of MARC 2005, which was adapted from NMan97 software for Ontario.
Manitoba Livestock Manure Management Initiative (see descriptions below)
A Liquid Manure Injection Tool Adapted to Different Soil and Crop Residue Conditions [351 KB pdf] (2002) - Ying Chen; Byron Heppner, Dept of Biosystems Eng., U. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB Canada R3T 5V6; tel: 204-474-6292; AIC 2002 Meeting CSAE/SCGR Program, Saskatoon, SK, July 14 - 17, 2002 - A liquid manure injection tool was developed based on the design criteria: easy adaptation, low draft force and surface exposure of injected manure, suitability for different soil and crop residue conditions and for variable manure application rates. The tool featured a chisel with a sweep and a shank.
The Effect Of Farm Liquid Waste Application On Receiving Water Quality: Final Report (1991) [4082 KB pdf] D. Dean, M.E. Foran, Ausable Bayfield Conservation Authority. 12 manure spreading events were monitored in 1989 and 1990 in order to further understand how soil properties, soil type, and rate of manure application effect tile drain water quality. Subsurface tile drains became contaminated shortly following manure application for 9 of 12 manure spreading events monitored. It appears as though flow in the tile drains is required for contamination to occur at the time of manure application.
Impacts of Winter Spreading of Manure on Water Quality: A Literature Review (95 KB pdf) (June 2000) - Ron Fleming, and Heather Fraser, Ridgetown College, Univ. of Guelph, Ridgetown, ON N0P 2C0; prepared for Ontario Pork - Spreading livestock manure in the winter has been a common practice in Ontario for many years. For the farmer, there are several advantages .... Despite these practical reasons for spreading manure in the winter, the concern about impacts on water quality has lead to a general acceptance that spreading manure in the winter is no longer environmentally acceptable.
Contamination of Subsurface Drainage Systems During Manure Spreading (1015 KB pdf) Ron Fleming, S.H. Bradshaw , Centralia College of Agric. Technology, Huron Park, ON - presentation at Amer. Soc. Ag. Eng., Nashville, TN, Dec 15-18, 1992 - A field-scale research project to assess relative impacts on tile drainage water of spreading liquid manure under different management techniques. Loadings of ammonium-N were used as an indicator of manure entry into tile drains.
Detection of Soil Macropores Using Smoke (869 KB pdf). Ron Fleming, S.H. Bradshaw - Centralia College of Agric. Technology, Huron Park, ON - presentation at Can. Soc. of Agric. Eng., July 5-9, 1992, Brandon, MB - Smoke bombs and a blower wer used to demonstrate the presence of soil macropores. Smoke was blown into subsurface tile drains on several farms under a variety of soil conditions. Smoke emerged from the ground in a band over the tiles. This band varied in width from isolated spots to as wide as 2 m. Technique has great potential as a demonstration to farmers.
Macropore Flow of Liquid Manure (739 KB pdf) Ron Fleming, S.H. Bradshaw - Centralia College of Agric. Technology, Huron Park, ON - presentation at Can. Soc. of Agric. Eng., July 29-31, 1991, Fredericton, NB - 60 soil columns were used in this study of macropore flow (30 clay loam, 30 sandy loam). The quantity of effluent from the soil columns was not significantly different between the 2 soil types, nor between no-till & conventional till. Effluent flow almost stopped by 17 hr following treatment, and > 50% of the flow occurred during the 1st 5hr. Some bacteria and chemicals in the manure were detected in the effluent.
Plugging Tile Drains to Reduce Manure Contamination (701 KB pdf) Ron Fleming and Mac MacAlpine, Ridgetown College, Ridgetown, ON - presentation at Can. Soc. of Agric. Eng., July 9-12, 1995, Ottawa, ON - An experiment was performed to assess the feasibility of plugging a drainage outlet to reduce or eliminate any harmful impacts to surface water after liquid manure application. 7 days after manure application, the blocked drain was released. Total loadings of nitrate, ammonium, coliform bacteria, phosphorus and potassium were compared.
Reducing Manure Output to Streams from Subsurface Drainage Systems (954 KB pdf) J.E. McLellan, Ron Fleming and S.H. Bradshaw - Centralia College of Agric. Technology, Huron Park, ON - presentation at Int'l Summer Meeting, Amer. Soc. of Agric. Eng., June 20-23, 1993, Spokane WA - An experiment in controlled drainage was performed to assess the feasibility of using this technique to attenuate nutrient and bacteria loadings to surface water bodies after liquid manure application on farmland. One section of a tile drain was blocked before applying liquid pig manure. After 7 days, the blocked drain was released. Comparison of total loading of nitrate, chloride, faecal coliform, faecal streptococci and E. coli were made between treatments.
Nitrate Levels in Soil Tile Drainage Water and Shallow Groundwater Under a Variety of Farm Management Systems (76 KB pdf)Ron Fleming, MacAlpine, M., and Tiffin, C., Ridgetown College, U. of Guelph, Ridgetown, ON - presented at Can. Soc. Agric. Eng., July 5-9, 1998, Vancouver, BC - 20 farms in SW Ont. were monitored for 3 yr (1995-98) Difference in nitrate, P & K levels in water samples show the relative impacts of tillage practices, crops grown and livestock vs non-livestock operations.
Environmental Benefits of Tile Drainage: Literature Review [83 KB pdf] Heather Fraser and Ron Fleming, Ridgetown College - U. of Guelph, October, 2001 - Tile drainage is both agronomically and economically beneficial for reasons includingbetter growing conditions, improved soil structure, better trafficability, reduced energy consumption, more timely planting and harvest, and improved yields for a variety of crops. Tile drainage can also impact the environment. Fleming and Bradshaw (1992) found that working the soil prior to spreading of manure minimizes the amount of contamination from the manure. They also recommended that farmers should monitor tile drainage outlets during and after manure application.
Potatoes & Manure: Researchers discover they do mix [179 KB pdf]- Jeffery Carter, Spudman - George Lazarovits envisions a day when liquid swine manure will be viewed in a more positive light - as a pathogen killer, soil energizer and nutrient source. He has discovered that organic amendments such as liquid swine manure can control verticillium wilt in potatoes - and probably many other diseases. More importantly, they discovered why it works in some fields but not in others. It’s a function of the soil pH, Lazarovits says.
Fate and Significance of Contaminants in Sewage Biosolids Applied to Agricultural Land Through Literature Review and Consultation with Stakeholder Groups. V. Anderson Assoc for Water Environment Association of Ontario. Land application of sewage biosolids has been widely practiced in North America (including Ontario) and Europe for many decades. This study is part of an ongoing effort by the Ontario government and municipalities to update and improve land application regulations and procedures.
Manure Application for Corn (2001) (1701 KB pdf poster) B. Ball-Coelho, R. C. Roy and A. J. Bruin, AAFC, London, ON - compares pre-plant manure applications for corn in sand with side-dress applications in loam soils.
Control of Verticillium dahliae by Ammonia and Nitrous Acid Released from Organic Amendments (1999) [170 KB pdf poster] - Mario Tenuta and George Lazarovits, AAFC, London, ON - NH3 and HNO2 (nitrous acid) generated from the addition of N amendments to soil killed microsclerotia (MS) of the soilborne plant pathogen, V. dahliae. HNO2 toxicity occurred in more soils and at lower N rates than that due to NH3 . The generation of HNO2 in soils may be feasible and applicable to a range of soils. This study will be the foundation to formulate soil specific N amendments to control pathogens.
Efficient Manure Utilization With Precision Sidedress Injection [3184 KB pdf] (Mar. 2003) B. Ball Coelho, R. C. Roy, E. Topp, Nuhn Industries, GreenLea Ag Centre, A&L Laboratories; Ontario Pork Final Report - Rate of manure application was extremely important to the transfer of contaminants to tile drains. Results indicate that with the proper rate and equipment, at acceptable soil water contents for injection, significant transfer of manure constituents to drainage tiles can be avoided. Contamination was noted at the highest rates (8000-10000 gpa injected), but was considerably less at the lower application rates, which were sufficient to supply corn nutrient requirements.
Prince Edward Island
Manure injection prescribed for production, environmental issues. Soil Conservation Canada. Aim of a three-year project that involves directly injecting liquid hog manure into the soil is to demonstrate to Prince Edward Island producers the practice has potential to increase crop yields, reduce input costs and benefit the environment.
Engineering of land application systems for livestock manure: A review [180 KB pdf] (2005). C. Laguë, H. Landry, & M. Roberge, Dept of Agric. & Bioresource Eng., U. of Sask., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9, Canada. Biosystems Engineering/Le génie des biosystèmes au Canada 47: 6.17- 6.28. - The first part of this review paper addresses the large variability of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of manure and how this variability needs to be accounted for in the design and operation of land application systems and equipment; paper concludes with an overview of required technological improvements to land application systems for all types of livestock manure.
Solid Manure Injection Proved Technically Feasible. (
Farmscape Article 2632, Nov. 3, 2007. The Prairie Agricultural Machinery
Institute (PAMI) reports that from a technical point of view
solid manure injection technology is ready to move to
commercialization. The two piece system was designed to land
apply solid and semi solid organic fertilizers containing 20
percent solids or higher. One of the potential benefits of
getting solid manure below the surface is reducing some
accumulation of nutrients (N & P) at the surface of the soil
where they may be susceptible to movement into water bodies by
surface runoff waters.
A Slurry Injection System for an "Off-the Shelf" Cultivator (1996). PAMI Research Update 732 .PAMI has developed a cultivator-based high-volume injection system which: 1) Maximizes the fertilizer value of liquid swine manure; 2) Reduces odour during the application process; 3) Reduces the potential of nitrate pollution due to over-application; 4) Provides well distributed nutrients for efficient crop use; 5) Can handle slurry trash such as straw, hair, and other foreign materials; 6) Can operate in fields with very heavy surface residues and long stubble.
International Information on Manure Application
Calibration of Manure Spreaders.(C825) John W. Worley, Paul E. Sumner, Thomas M. Bass, Montana State University - Calibrating a manure spreader is a simple, easy management tool that can help producers use nutrients from animal manure efficiently and safely. Over-application or uneven application of manure wastes nutrients and increases the chance of ground or surface water contamination. By knowing the application rate of the manure spreader, correct amounts of manure can be applied to meet crop needs. The procedure takes less than an hour but can save hundreds of dollars through more efficient use of manure nutrient resources. Calibration, along with timely application to provide nutrients when crops can use them, helps ensure efficient and safe use of animal manures.
Poultry Manure Management And Utilization Problems And Opportunities - Bulletin 804 - Ohio State University Extension - Alternatives in Poultry Manure Management and Utilization - The major route for the disposal and/or utilization of poultry manure has been its application to cropland. Disposal is when large amounts of manure are applied to the land without regard to soil fertility and projected cropfertilization needs. Utilization is when the manure applied is calculated to meet the needs for soil fertilizer elements used in crop production. This alternative will remain as a major method of dealing with poultry manure, but increasing emphasis must be placed on utilization for crop production and not on disposal.
Livestock Manure Sampling and Testing. Tim Wagar, Mike Schmitt, Chuck Clanton and Fred Bergsrud - University of Minnesota Extension Service - Livestock manure is a valuable resource when properly and efficiently managed. On the other hand, manure that is applied at excessive rates or not applied uniformly can lead to surface and groundwater pollution. To effectively use manure, a cropland application plan is important. Furthermore, manure that has been sampled and tested for nutrients enables crop advisors and farmers to more efficiently utilize manure in preparing an application plan. - 1998
Environmental Quality publications, U. of Missouri Outreach and Extension. Index to publications, expertise and resources on issues related to water quality (surface water, ground water, nutrients, bacterial, manure, hazardous (toxic) waste, solid wastes).
Biosolids & Manure Application Equipment. AG-CHEM Equipment, 5720 Smetana Drive, Minnetonka MN 55343; Phone: 612-933-9006; Fax: 612-933-7432 - increasing environmental pressures have led large animal agriculture operations to the Terra-Gator for responsible manure handling. Adding Ag-Chem’s innovative site specific technologies to the Terra-Gator’s strength and productivity is the answer to today’s nutrient management requirements.
Manure Application, Univ. of Minnesota.
The Agronomics of Manure Use in Crop Production. K.L. Wells, Extension Soils Specialist, Department of Agronomy, University of Kentucky; (an Acrobat pdf file); #AGR-165 - Interest in the farm use of animal manures has been renewed in recent years, primarily because of regulatory concerns related to water quality. The purpose of this publication is to review the use of manure in providing beneficial nutrients to crops from an agronomic viewpoint. Proper agronomic use of animal manures is often compatible with other best management practices (BMPs) likely to be required as part of water quality regulations.
Evaluating Fertilizer Recommendations - Lloyd Murdock, Extension Soils Specialist, University of Kentucky; #AGR-151 - Soil testing and making fertilizer recommendations are not the same thing. While soil test results estimate the plant available nutrients in a field, the fertilizer recommendation, which is based on an interpretation of soil test results, determines how much lime and fertilizer are needed by a particular crop species on a particular field.
Fertilizer Nutrients in Dairy Manure - Charles D. Fulhage and Donald L. Pfost, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia; Water Quality Initiative publication WQ307 - New July 15, 1993 - Many dairy producers fall into one of two categories: 1) they are willing to make high capital and labor outlays to maximize the usage of their dairy wastes for crop production, or 2) they are willing to minimize the amount of nutrients returned to the land for crop production in exchange for a relatively low-cost and low-labor method of waste disposal.
Waste Management Publications, University of Missouri Extension,
Columbia MO -
Spreading Dairy Waste Without Lab Analysis or Soil Tests - Charles
D. Fulhage and Donald L. Pfost, Department of Agricultural Engineering,
University of Missouri-Columbia; Water Quality Initiative
publication WQ309 - Reviewed October 1, 1993 - A primary need and concern
for most confinement livestock producers is managing manure so that
groundwater and surface water are protected and regulatory requirements
are fulfilled. This objective is usually accomplished by applying manure
to the land in such a manner that the potential polluting nutrients
(N, P, K and organic matter) are used by the soil-plant complex and
are not allowed to enter the groundwater/surface water infrastructure.
Nutrient Dynamics in Soils Receiving Chemically Treated Dairy Manure. M. Kalbasi &K.G. Karthikeyan; pp. 655-665 in the Animal, Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes, Proceedings of the 9th Int. Symp., 11-14 Oct. 2003 (Raleigh, North Carolina, USA), ed. Robert Burns. ASAE Pub #701P1203 - Impact of land application of chemically treated manure on soil P status greatly depends on the chemical used for treatment, the rate of manure (and, hence, P) applied and the soil background P level. Application of Al- or Fe- treated dairy manure to soil significantly decreases the solubility of P, and this effect is more pronounced in soils with high background P. Alum and FeCl3 treatment of liquid dairy manure may, therefore, be considered a best management practice to decrease the risk of off-site migration of P from agricultural soils enriched in P.
Runoff and Soil Loss as Affected by the Application of Manure (2000) J.E. Gilley, USDA-ARS, U. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE; L. M. Risse, U. of Georgia, Athens, GA; Trans. of the ASAE 43(6):1583-1588 - The application of manure reduced runoff and soil loss on each of the sites on which it was added, even when manure was not applied annually. A residual benefit from previous manure additions appears to have been present during those years in which manure was not applied.
T. Bowman, Archivist