|Note:||Digester Background Information is in a separate file to speed up access. Just follow the links below.|
Background Digester Information (separate file)
The Stirling Cycle Engine. A Stirling engine is a closed-cycle, regenerative heat engine which uses an external combustion process, heat exchangers, pistons, a 'regenerator' and a gaseous working fluid contained within the engine to convert heat to mechanical work (motion).
Free Piston Machines, Infinia Corp., 6811 W. Okanogan Place, Kennewick WA 99336 USA; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. For the past century, Stirling machines have been accepted as efficient energy conversion devices for both cooling and power production. For this reason, Stirling engines are often found in applications where space and power budgets are limited. Higher efficiency means smaller compressors, lower input power and lower cost.
Stirling Engine Information - information for beginners, as well as photos and links to other sites.
Opportunities For Small Biomass Power Systems [569 KB pdf]. Darren D. Schmidt, Vasu S. Pinapati, Energy & Environmental Research Center, U. of North Dakota, PO Box 9018, Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202-9018 - for U.S. Dept of Energy, 9800 South Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 [DOE # DE-FG02-99EE35128] Nov. 2000 - The purpose of this study was to provide information to key stakeholders and the general public about biomass resource potential for power generation. Ten types of biomass were identified and evaluated. The quantities available for power generation were estimated separately for five U.S. regions and Canada.
COGEN Europe Position Papers - COGEN Europe, rue Guelledelle 98, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium; E-mail:email@example.com. This technique is a new scale in power production and should not be regarded as a threat for other more conventional forms of cogeneration, but as a complimentary system. It brings important environmental benefits which will help meet Kyoto commitments. An interesting feature of these decentralised systems is that they are extremely simple to install and very flexible. They are often delivered ‘turnkey’, in sound-proof containers, of a reasonable size and the only operations needed are water, electricity and fuel connections. They can be based on engines or more recently on micro-turbines.
Biogas Upgrading (purification of biogas for fuel usage)
Fuel cells for distributed power: benefits, barriers and perspectives [2939 KB pdf]. Commissioned by WWF, in co-operation with Fuel Cell Europe. Martin Pehnt, Inst. for Energy & Env. Res. (IFEU GmbH), Wilckensstraße 3, D-69120 Heidelberg; tel.: +49 (0) 6221 / 47 67– 0, Fax: +49 (0) 6221 / 47 67 -19; Stephan Ramesohl, Wuppertal Inst. für Klima, Umwelt, Energie, Postfach 10 04 80, D-42004 Wuppertal; A fuel cell combines hydrogen with oxygen (from air) in a chemical reaction, producing water, electricity and heat. Fuel cells do not “burn” the fuel, the conversion takes place electrochemically without combustion. Fuelled with pure hydrogen, they produce zero emissions of pollutant and greenhouse gases at the location of the power plant.
Life Cycle Assessment of Fuel Cell Systems [1541 KB pdf]. Martin Pehnt, Inst. for Energy & Environ. Res. (IFEU GmbH), Wilckensstraße 3, D-69120 Heidelberg; This chapter presents LCAs of fuel cells in mobile and stationary applications with different fuel options and compares them to conventional power train or plant options focussing on different environmental aspects such as use of resources, global warming, acidification and emission of carcinogenic substances.
King County Fuel Cell Demonstration Project (WA, USA). (In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and FuelCell Energy Inc.) - King County's Wastewater Treatment Division, FuelCell Energy Inc., and the Office of Wastewater Management of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are working together to sponsor the world's largest demonstration project of a molten carbonate (MCFC or "Direct") fuel cell using digester gas (methane) as fuel.
Hydrogen fuel cell project uses biogas from manure digester (May 2005). A Minnesota dairy farm is making history by becoming the first demonstration project in the world to run a hydrogen fuel cell from the biogas captured from dairy cows. The project is being conducted at the Haubenschild family farm near Princeton.
Feasibility of fuel cells for energy conversion on the dairy farm [1928 KB pdf] (Mar 2003). Cornell Univ. - Economically, fuel cells cannot compete with diesel gensets on a 500 or 1000 cow dairy farm with current economic conditions. However, there is an opportunity for economical operation of a MCFC at AA dairy if biogas from 1000 cows is converted into electrical and thermal energy.
Xebec Adsorption Inc. (Formerly QuestAir Pure Innovations) 730 Boul. Industriel, Blainville, Quebec, J7C 3V4 Canada. Xebec designs and builds biogas upgrading plants for landfill gas, waste water treatment and anaerobic digester gas and manufacturers natural gas dryers for the natural gas vehicle (NGV) market.
TASK 37: ENERGY FROM BIOGAS AND LANDFILL GAS. Task 37 is a working group which covers the biological treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) as well as the anaerobic treatment of organic rich industrial waste water.
Feasibility Study – Biogas upgrading and grid injection in the Fraser Valley, British Columbia (June 2008) [2900 KB pdf]; Electrigaz Technologies Inc., study, which follows a previous piece of work1 produced in 2007 for evaluating the technical and economical potential for anaerobic digestion in the Fraser Valley, focuses on the potential of upgrading farm produced biogas to biomethane (a renewable natural gas) and its subsequent sale in existing gas markets. During this study, several technologies and existing biogas upgrading projects are reviewed to derive an average cost for production of biomethane from organic waste.
Metal Organic Framework Adsorbent for Biogas Upgrading. (2008). Simone Cavenati, et al., Dept of Chem.l Eng., U. of Porto, Portugal; Christoph Kiener and Ulrich Müller, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen, Germany. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 47 (16), 6333–6335. The discovery of new materials with enhanced selectivity or capacity will boost adsorption applications, especially for environmental control. In particular, it was mentioned that metal-organic frameworks (MOF) with different tailored properties may be prepared for desired separations. To promote industrial application of MOF materials, up-scaling and process design still must be completely developed. In this work, we report adsorption equilibrium data of methane and carbon dioxide on Cu-MOF extrudates. The most important properties observed are the high-capacity for CO2 and the small nonlinearity of the isotherms. In this context, this adsorbent can be used for biogas upgrading to produce biomethane and reduce fossil-fuel CO2.
Manure into Gold: A strategic framework for manure management in Ontario [344 KB pdf] (Mar. 2, 2004) Ernest Lowe, Ivan Weber, Sustainable Systems Inc., 300 Frank H. Ogawa Plaza, Suite 210, Oakland, CA. 94612- Prepared for: Centre for Research in Earth and Space Technology (CRESTech), 4850 Keele St. Toronto, ON M3J 3K1; Tel: (416) 665-5413 Fax: (416) 665-2032 - This report proposes a strategic context for manure management in Ontario and focuses on priorities for short-term and long-term research and development financing. It proposes a possible mission statement that establishes a sustainable economic development context for this strategy:
Combined Heating and Power (CHP) Units
What is Micro CHP? Micro-CHP is a mass-produced "energy appliance" for the single family home, though it is also applicable for other applications, such as small hotels, small high street retail outlets, commercial buildings such as small offices and multi-family apartment blocks. It is sized for the thermal needs of the household (hot water, heat) and will, in the majority of cases, be installed on the customer side of the meter. Their electrical generation capacities will exceed home requirements and that excess is exported back to the electrical grid, providing a small revenue source (payback) for the homeowner.
In terms of size, the product will vary up to 10 kWe depending on the application and the size to comply with national electrical connection standards. The product is based on three engine types:
Micro CHP units are much more efficient (85%) than centralized electrical generation plants (35-50% efficient), since they are sized to capture virtually all of the thermal energy produced for home use (hot water, heating), rather than discarding this energy, as is usually the situation with large centralized electrical generation plants.
The concept of "completely distributed" electrical generation is similar to that of the "distributed computing" concept of the internet - resulting in much greater inherent stability (against large blackouts), than for centralized power generation systems. Furthermore, lines losses from distribution (usually about 7%) are substantially less with this de-centralized approach, as well as eliminating the need for lengthy environmental assessments required for mega-generation plants.
From a homeland security perspective, this completely distributed approach to power generation removes it as a potential terrorist target.
Be a power broker in your own home [34 KB pdf]. Mick Hamer, NEW SCIENTIST 14 Feb., 2004. Ditch your dependence on polluting power stations - electricity generation is coming much closer to home - IMAGINE watching your electricity meter run backwards as, instead of using power, you actually donate some to the grid. That's the offer that will be held out to consumers over the next decade as millions of households get get the chance to generate their own electricity using a new breed of domestic power generators. The advantage stems from the fact that micro CHP plants are 85 per cent efficient, compared with only 35 per cent for power stations.
Micro-CHP: Coming to a Home Near You? [159 KB pdf]. Platts Research & Consulting, 3333 Walnut St., Boulder, CO 80301-2515; Tel: 303-444-7788; Fax 720-548-0022; E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org - For years, there has been a great deal of talk about household-scale combined heat and power (CHP) systems, but only now are they becoming a commercial reality. Based on Stirling engines and internal combustion engines, today’s micro-CHP systems are being sold to homeowners in Europe and Japan. And in some markets, they are already competing effectively with retail-priced electricity.
Compact Heat and Power Packages (CHP). Senertec, Kraft-Wärme-Energiesysteme GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 18 D-97424 Schweinfurt Germany - Tel: ++499721/651-0; Fax: ++499721/651-203; e-mail: email@example.com - You can generate your own power with gas or oil. Usually, every kilowatt hour is far cheaper than when purchased from the electricity supply company. The heat is used to heat the building. Cogeneration helps the environment. Due to modern technology the maintenance costs are very low. The unit only needs to be serviced every 3,500 h (gas) or every 2,700 h (oil), by a qualified technician. Buildings with high heat requirement such as commercial enterprises, swimming pools or hotels can efficiently use the self-generated power. (This may be the future of "distributed, power generation).
UK Government's Strategy for Combined Heat and Power to 2010 [268 KB pdf]. Dept of Env., Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). Strategy document sets out a framework to support the growth of CHP capacity in the UK and to enable the CHP industry to meet the challenges ahead. The Government announced, in 2000, a target of achieving at least 10,000 MWe of Good Quality CHP capacity by 2010 and the development of a Strategy to achieve it.
Co-Generation: The Future of Energy Supply, Marathon Engine Systems, 2050 Energy Drive, East Troy, WI 53120; Tel 262-642-6436; Fax 262-642-6437. The Ecopower Micro-CHPwill be to provide heat and power in both a cost efficient and environment-friendly manner, using the most sophisticated method of energy supply available. This innovative appliance introduces advanced technology to the future of energy production.
Renewable Energy is an International Energy Agency agreement
for the exchange of information on commercial renewable energy projects
and has been operating since 1993. CADDET stands for Centre for the
Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies. (USA -
David Warner, National Renewable Energy
Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, COLORADO 80401-3393;
Tel: + 001 303-275-4373; Fax: +001 303-275-3619; Website:
The following list of links are downloadable brochures in PDF format:
Co-digestion of Manure with Industrial and Household Waste - The Kristianstad biogas plant is the first in Sweden to co-digest municipal solid waste with manure and other organic biomass to produce energy and fertiliser. In 1998, the plant handled over 70,000 tonnes of waste and produced biogas equivalent to 20,000 MWh. This project offers a sustainable solution to waste disposal problems encountered in many countries. (Printed 2000).
MATRESA (MAnure TREatment Strategies for Sustainable Agriculture) is an EU funded project classified as an “Accompanying Measure”. It is a collaboration of 30 partners across Europe who are specializing in some aspect of the Management of Agricultural Wastes. The project officially started on 1st February 2001 and will be concluded on 31st July 2002 although this site will operate for a further 12 months for the purpose of dissemination of the results. Contact: Colin Burton, Silsoe Research Institute, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford, UK - Silsoe will be shutting it doors in Mar. 2006
Biogas Production In Farms, Through Anaerobic Digestion Of Cattle And Pig Manure. Case Studies And Research Activities In Europe. [159 KB pdf]. Guillermo Escobar and Matti Heikkila; Action reference no.: TEKES/30.3.99/6, TEKES, OPET, Finland - This report gives an overview of energy recovery from pig and cow manure using anaerobic digestion. It reviews European projects within this field and several case studies. An additional section is devoted to current R&D both in Europe and in North America.
European BioEnergy Network (EUBIONET). Publications: Biogas; Biomass CHP and electricity production.
Danish Centralized Biogas Plants-Plant Descriptions (2000) [1295 KB pdf]. Bioenergy Dept., U. of Southern Denmark - excellent overview of 20 centralized biogas plants in Demark, including operational information on each plant.
Centralised Biogas Plants. Integrated Energy Production, Waste Treatment and Nutrient Redistribution Facilities [1982 KB pdf]. Bioenergy Dept., U. of Southern Denmark - rationale, concepts and background to the development of Danish centralized biogas plants.
Rokel Pig Farm Demonstration Biogas Plant [pdf] (Kaunas, Lithuania). Folkecenter for Renewable Energy, DK-7760 Hurup Thy, Denmark. The daily 60 m3 of manure from the 11,000 pigs, is converted by anaerobic digestion into a "more ready to use" fertiliser. The biogas produced by co-generation is converted into electricity and heat, which will reduce the farms expenses for energy significantly. Surplus electric energy will be sold to the public grid. The biogas plant consists of 3 horizontal digesters in a parallel configuration fed by raw manure. This gives unique possibilities to obtain continuously local experiences of operation of the plant. Different additives and conditions of operating can be tested, and the results can easily be compared.
GHG mitigation by anaerobic digestion [235 KB pdf]. Inst. for Energy and Environment, Torgauer Str. 116, 04347 Leipzig, Germany - Objectives 1) To determine the GHG mitigation potential of anaerobic digestion of cattle slurry by an integrated analysis of three digestion strategies that includes measurements of CH4 production during digestion and storage, as well as GHG emissions following field application. 2) To transfer the field data to European soils from five geographic regions.
MAS EL CROS Biogas Plant. Evaluation Of 18 Years In Operation [599 KB pdf]. Xavier Flotats1, Vicenç Gibert2 - 1 Dept of Env. & Soil Sci., U. of Lleida, Rovira Roure 177, 25198 Lleida, Spain; 2Mas El Cros S.A. Veinat de les Fages, 17811 Santa Pau, Spain; 7th FAO/SREN Workshop. Anaerobic digestion for sustainability in waste (water) treatment and re-use, Moscow, 19-22 May 2002 - The construction of the biogas plant together with the farm (minimising investment costs); the conceptual simplicity of its design; the integration of all its elements as integral part of the farm; the maintenance and supervision tasks done by local technicians; and the global integrated vision of swine manure in the whole of the farm, as an energy and nutrients resource.
Krieg & Fischer Ingenieure GmbH- Hannah-Vogt-Strasse 1, D-37085 Goettingen, Germany; Tel.: +49 (0)551 3057432; Fax: +49 (0)551 77077-12; em - Fischer@KriegFischer.de - Planning & construction of biogas plants - have designed and constructed several dozen biogas plants in Germany.
The AgSTAR Program - This is a voluntary effort jointly sponsored by the US EPA, the USDA and the US Dept. of Energy to encourage the use of methane recovery (biogas) technologies at confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) that manage manure as liquids or slurries. The technologies reduce greenhouse gas (methane) concentrations while achieving other environmental benefits.
Assessment of Biogas-to-Energy at Commercial Swine Operations in Colorado (final report) (Nov., 2000) [561 KB] Prepared by: McNeil Technologies, Inc., 350 Indiana Street Suite 800, Golden, CO 80401-5099 - Use of complete mix digesters coupled with methane recovery for energy use poses an opportunity for some Colorado facilities to comply with the new odor and water quality regulations in a cost-effective manner. Complete mix digestion is the most appropriate option for the use of AD for methane recovery in Colorado due to the relatively cold climate for most of the state. All facilities considering AD should conduct a site-specific feasibility study to determine whether AD can be used at their facility.
Vermont Clean Energy Development Fund (CEDF) - goal of the Fund is to increase the development and deployment of cost-effective and environmentally sustainable electric power resources – primarily with respect to renewable energy resources, and the use of combined heat and power technologies - in Vermont.
Benefits, Costs and Operating Experience at Ten New Agricultural Anaerobic Digesters. Mark A. Moser, Richard P. Mattocks, Dr. Stacy Gettier, Kurt Roos. Presented at: BioEnergy .98, Expanding Bioenergy Partnerships, Madison, Wisconsin, Oct. 4-8, 1998. Farmer motivation for building and operating anaerobic digesters has expanded from solely energy benefits to include manure treatment cost savings, nutrient conversion, odor and pathogen control, and byproduct recovery. Three dairy plug flow digesters (NY, CT, OR), three covered pig manure lagoons (NC, VA, IA) and one heated mixed pig manure digester (IL) have been placed in operation, since January 1997 with AgSTAR technical assistance. Keeping the Neighbors Happy - Reducing Odor while Making Biogas(140 KB PDF).
Methane Energy and Agricultural Development (MEAD) Project [pdf] (The Hooley Digester). The Port of Tillamook Bay, 4000 Blimp Blvd., Tillamook, OR 97141; tel. 503.842.2413; em - firstname.lastname@example.org - installing a centralized methane digester to biologically process the manure from 4000 of the county's 30,000 dairy cows. Manure will be picked up by facility personnel, treated, and a portion returned to participating farms. Transportation costs will be offset by sale of electricity as "green power" and by sale of fiber recovered for use by a potting soil manufacturer.
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: Methane Energy And Agricultural Development, Port Of Tillamook Bay Dairy Digester Project [3117 KB pdf] (Jan. 2002) U.S. Department of Energy - to demonstrate a proven technology for processing farm animal manure from 2,000 mature Holstein cows, while simultaneously producing clean, renewable electrical power and other marketable products. The project would mitigate some potential environmental risks (such as reduction of pathogens) associated with current land applications of manure, in which water runoff can contribute to the contamination of rivers in the Tillamook watershed. In addition, the 160 dairy farmers in Tillamook County have serious problems with storage of manure, particularly in the winter months when precipitation is significant.
Farm-Based Anaerobic Digestion in Michigan: History, Current Status, and Future Outlook [788 KB pdf] - Rozdilsky, Jack L. (1997). A Report of the Michigan Biomass Energy Program, Lansing, Michigan: Michigan Department of Consumer and Industry Services, Energy Division. The successful anaerobic digester in Sturgis has shown that a farmer must closely match the digester's operation to the farm's resource management regime. By establishing these matches in the planning stages, digesters can create both monetary and non-monetary benefits for the farmer.
An Assessment of the Performance of the Colorado Pork, LLC. Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Utilization System [409 KB pdf] (Mar., 2003) - John H. Martin, Jr., Hall Associates, 23 Evergreen Dr., Georgetown, Delaware 19947 - report summarizes the results from one of a series of studies designed to: 1) more fully characterize and quantify the protection of air and water quality provided by waste management systems currently used in the swine and dairy industries and 2) delineate associated costs; report presents an assessment of the performance of the mesophilic intermittently mixed anaerobic digester used for swine manure stabilization and biogas production at Colorado Pork, LLC. (CP), Lamar, Colorado. Also presented is an assessment of the use of the biogas captured to generate electricity.
A Dozen Successful Swine Waste Digesters - Mark A. Moser RCM Digesters, Inc., Box 4716, Berkeley, CA 94704 - Swine waste can be successfully stabilized in farm scale anaerobic digesters. Four examples each of ambient temperature covered lagoon digesters, heated mixed tank digesters and heated mixed lagoons are included. Biogas recovery and use in boilers or engine generators is discussed. A detailed case study of a single cell heated covered lagoon for odor control from 120,000 pigs is presented. The system cost $1,200,000.
Tinedale Farms Anaerobic Digester: A biomass energy project [595 KB pdf] (July 2002) (Report 210-1) - Tinedale Farms LLP in Wrightstown, WI, is one of the largest dairy production operations in Wisconsin, housing nearly 2,500 animals; first temperature-phased Anaerobic Digestion (TPAD) system being operated by the dairy industry in the United States and the first AD system of any kind for the dairy industry in Wisconsin.
Anaerobic Digestion And Wetland Treatment Case Study: Comparing Two Manure Odor Control Systems For Dairy Farms [45 KB pdf]. Peter E. Wright, Cornell Coop. Ext., Ithaca, NY, USA; Stephen P. Perschke, UDSA NRCS, Batavia, NY, USA [presented at 1998 ASAE Meeting, Orlando, FL, July 12-16]. A comparison of two existing odor control treatments on dairy farms in NY shows the costs and benefits of each system. On one dairy farm an anaerobic digester is used to stabilize the manure and collect methane for the production of electricity. The effluent is then separated. The solids are sold, and the liquid effluent is then land applied. The other dairy farm uses a wetland treatment system. This farm uses flushing to carry the manure to shallow ponds for solid settling. The solids are recovered for off site sale. The liquid effluent is treated in a facultative lagoon.
Anaerobic Digestion Treatment Case Study: An Odor Control System for Dairy Farms [29 KB pdf]. Peter E. Wright, Dept of Agric. & Biol. Eng., Cornell Cooperative Extension, Ithaca, NY - The objectives of this paper are to show the material flow, nutrient content, and costs of the manure handling system. The advantages and disadvantages are described so that managers can decide if it will meet their needs.
Preliminary Comparison of Five Anaerobic Digestion Systems on Dairy Farms in New York State [872 KB pdf] (Aug. 2004). Peter Wright, et al, Dept of Biol. & Env. Eng., Cornell U. Ithaca, NY 14853 - Presented at 2004 ASAE/CSAE Ann. Int. Meeting, Ottawa, ON. Each of these dairy farms has installed an anaerobic digester to control odor. The currently available mass flow, nutrient flow, pathogen reduction, energy production and use, & economics of these systems are presented and compared; systems vary by 1) type of digester: fixed film, plug flow, or mixed, 2) type of energy conversion: boiler, internal combustion engine, or micro turbine, 3) digester feed: scraped manure from freestalls, separated tie stall manure, or manure with food waste added, and 4) farm size.
Haubenschild Farm Anaerobic Digester [706 KB pdf]. The Minnesota Project. Updated report documents the installation and 34-month performance of a heated plug-flow anaerobic digester for a 750-cow dairy herd in Minnesota. (partially funded by EPA AgStar Program).
A Comparison of Dairy Cattle Manure Management with and without Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Utilization [250 KB pdf] (Mar. 2003). John H. Martin, Jr., Eastern Research Group, Inc., 35 India St., Boston, MA 02110.. for Kurt Roos, AgSTAR Program, U.S. EPA , Ariel Rios Bldg, 200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW (6202J), Washington, DC 20460- Objective is to develop a better understanding of: 1) the potential of individual system components and combinations of these components to ameliorate the impacts of swine and dairy cattle manures on environmental quality and 2) the relationships between design and operating parameters and the performance of the biological and physical/chemical processes involved.
Three mile Canyon Farms Near Boardman, Oregon, is the Corporate Milk Producer of the Future -Threemile Canyon Farms' dairy operation blends high-technology production with environmental stewardship to produce more than 1 million pounds (160,000 gallons) of milk daily. To ensure herd quality, we raise our own replacement dairy cows in our 4,000-calf nursery. We also have a 21,000-head heifer facility. Every cow is tagged and tracked in our computerized database, which contains extensive records on each of the 41,000 cows on the farm.
Swine USA Anaerobic Digester [133 KB pdf], Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Box 4715, Berkeley, CA 94704; email@example.com. Information on solids, COD, N, P & K contents at various stages - Methane generated electricity has replaced approximately 35% of their energy demand since startup. It replaces up to ½ of their demand during the warm season, and less during the cold months when the demands for heat of both the buildings and the digester are higher.
Iowa Senator Proposes Legislation to Convert Animal Waste to Electricity, Reduce Odor and Runoff (49 KB) (July, 2001). Providing new opportunities for energy production, environmental clean-up and increased farm income, Sen. Chuck Grassley today introduced legislation to create a production tax credit and start-up incentive for electricity generated from hog and cattle manure.
Anaerobic Digestion Information Resources. Midwest Rural Energy Council, 460 Henry Mall, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706; 608-262-5062 (phone), 608-262-1228 (fax); firstname.lastname@example.org - list of current resources on the topic of anaerobic digestion.
California dairy group hopes manure program breaks the bank. Environmental News Network (Aug., 2001) - The Western United Dairymen of Modesto, Calif., is hoping that a state grant program to convert cattle manure into electricity will be so popular that the group will have to ask the state for more money.... Synagro plans a facility at the Inland Empires Utilities Agency, which put up $4.5 million for the project. It will produce methane gas from the droppings of about 3,700 dairy cattle. The gas will be burned to generate electricity to power a water-desalting facility and to demonstrate that the system works.
Agricultural Biogas Casebook 2004 update [2252 KB pdf].
Joseph Kramer, Resource Strategies
Inc., 22 N. Carroll St., Suite 300, Madison, WI 53703 608-251-2260;
The purpose of this casebook is to provide a picture of the current
state of on-farm anaerobic digester (AD) use in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,
Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin in the spring of 2002.
The summary information provided in these profiles can help those considering
using AD technologies to make informed choices and provide a general
improvement in implementation efficiency and operator success.
Agricultural Biogas Casebook [905 KB pdf] Sept 2002.
Harvesting Clean Energy for Rural Development: Biogas [901 KB pdf] (Feb. 2002). Patrick Mazza, Climate Solutions, Olympia WA; overview of biogas systems, planned or installed in the USA; good list of contact information provided.
Management and Operation of a Full-Scale Poultry Waste Digester [44 KB pdf] (1987). L.M. Safley, Jr. (Biol & Agric. Eng. Dept, North Carolina State U., Raleigh, NC 27695-7625; R.L. Vetter, A. O. Smith Harvestore Products, Inc., Barrington. IL 60010; L.D. Smith, Princeton, NC 27569. Poultry Science 66:941-945. A full -scale (587 m3) poultry anaerobic digester was monitored for 3 years. The digester processes the manure from 70,000 caged layers and is operated on a 22-day retention time at 35 C. Resulting biogas is used to fuel an 80 kW engine-generator set; the electricity is sold to the local utility. excellent paper with details.
Commonwealth Biogas/PV Mini-Grid Renewable Resources RD&D Program (California). To encourage renewable energy research that is market oriented and has a high likelihood of being used in California's electricity market the Energy Commission issued an RD&D funding solicitation. The Commonwealth Biogas/PV Mini-Grid Renewable Resource RD&D Program was developed in response to this solicitation.
Two Different Approaches to Funding Farm-Based Biogas Projects in Wisconsin and California [197 KB pdf] (Sept. 2002). Kevin Porter, Exeter Associates; Ryan Wiser and Mark Bolinger, Berkeley Lab - Both states are interested in developing biogas projects from livestock manure, but have targeted this renewable energy application differently.
Ambient Temperature Anaerobic Digester and Greenhouse for Swine Waste Treatment and Bioresource Recovery at Barham Farm, North Carolina [pdf]. Animal and Poultry Waste Management Center, NC State University a 4,000 head farrow-to-wean operation; ambient digester consists of an impermeable cover over an in-ground digester. Waste is moved from the houses in which pigs are kept to the in-ground digester; system is currently operational and is being used for sole treatment of the wastewater produced on Mr. Barham’s swine production facility.
Demonstration Of Dairy Manure Remediation Using IBR Technology [397 KB pdf] 2002 Proceedings, Waste Research Technology. C.S. Hansen and C.L. Hansen, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322; Phone: (435)760-1973; Fax: (435)797-2379. A report of the performance of a new design of an aerobic bioreactor called the induced blanket reactor or IBR. The IBR appears to treat high-solids organic matter (manure) effectively in a relatively short time without plugging; an upflow sludge blanket type, features a method to build and maintain a sludge blanket without plugging. Up to 80% of the VSS were removed from dairy manure in the IBR with less than a 10-day HRT.
Dairy Power Production Program: Edenvale Dairy [314 KB pdf] (Dec 2006). Western United Resource Development, Inc. Objectives of the program include developing commercially proven biogas electricity systems that can help California dairies offset the purchase of electricity and providing environmental benefits by potentially reducing air and ground water pollutants associated with storage and treatment of livestock wastes.
Anaerobic Manure Digestion Information and Resources, Minnesota Dept of Agriculture - useful reference list and A.D. FAQs.
Panda Energy announces third ethanol plant powered by cow manure (Sept 19, 2005). Panda Energy announced today that it would build a 100 million gallon fuel ethanol plant in Haskell County, Kansas. The plant will use a billion pounds of cattle manure each year as a renewable fuel to power the plant's operations. The $120 million facility will refine US corn and milo into fuel ethanol that will be blended with gasoline to produce a clean, low cost fuel for America's cars and trucks. The ethanol produced in this plant will replace the need to import 100 million gallons of gasoline each year. Press release in PDF (13 KB).
Anaerobic Digester Systems for Mid-Sized Dairy Farms [740 KB pdf] (2005). Philip R. Goodrich, Dept of Bioproducts & Biosystems Eng. U. of Minn. The Minnesota Project. Six options for anaerobic digestion of animal manure on mid-sized dairy farms in Minnesota have been presented to provide dairy farm operators with information needed to make decisions about odor control and manure management technology. Information for each option is presented with schematics of the system, an explanation of how the system functions, the environmental benefits and lessons learned from other similar digesters. Capital costs for the installation of the digesters and yearly costs are presented. The expected benefits from odor control and use of separated solids are presented for a 100-cow dairy.
Biomethane from Dairy Waste: A Sourcebook for the Production and Use of Renewable Natural Gas in California (July 2005) [5036 KB pdf]. Prepared for Western United Dairymen. Report examines the feasibility of producing biomethane from dairy manure. We investigated a number of possible technologies for producing renewable forms of energy and fuel from dairy wastes as well as applications and markets for these products. Although some of the applications proved to be technically or economically infeasible at this time, we believe that the information gathered could prove useful for other investigators or future studies.
E3's Mead Complex Houses Closed Loop System - E3 Biofuels, LLC, Omaha, NE was building a $45 M closed loop alcohol-from-manure facility at a Mead, NE. using A.D. technology - 30,000 head feedlot (8 M bu. of corn/yr à 24 M gal/yr). In a self-sustained, closed-loop system, methane gas from a cattle-feeding operation will be used at the site to generate power, corn and grain will contribute to the manufacture of ethanol, and cattle will be fed wet distiller’s grain from the ethanol production. (Bankrupt since Nov. 2007)
Hog Waste Producing Electricity, Carbon Offsets - Duke Univ. pilot project at Yadkinville farm gets Google endorsement. The system, on a hog finishing facility 25 miles west of Winston-Salem, converts hog waste into electricity and creates carbon offset credits. By capturing greenhouse gases from hog waste and burning them to run a turbine, the system produces enough electricity to power 35 homes for a year. It is expected to be able to prevent the release of greenhouse gases equivalent to nearly 5,000 metric tons of CO2 per year, which is like taking 900 cars off the road. [2011-09-12]
U.S. Operating Digesters, (Nov. 2008).The AgSTAR Program. The selection of a technology provider or developer is a critical decision in developing successful projects. A typical project will consist of digester, gas handling, and gas use - Consultants; Developers; Manufacturers/ Distributors of Covers; Manufacturers/ Distributors of Engines; Manufacturers/ Distributors of Tanks; Other: Commodity Organizations; Other: General Energy Services. See also - Directory of Experts
Rural Electricity Resource Council. nonprofit association that delivers information and technical assistance on the efficient use of energy, with an emphasis on rural applications.
Environmental Energy Company, 6007 Hill Road NE, Olympia, WA 98516 USA - A design/build consultant for anaerobic digesters - develped technologies for the economical conversion of the following wastes: • Municipal Sewage Sludge; • Food Processing Waste; • Animal Manure and Agricultural Waste - specializing in AGF process which uses "Anoxic Gas Flotation" to accomplish solids separation.
Environomics, 2517 Rte. 44, 11-221, Salt Point, NY 12578; Tel: 917.359.5616; Fax: 845.635.4169; Email: email@example.com; Manure Biogas Digestion Systems; Electrical, Thermal & Nutrient Recovery; The animal waste by-product of your business has never looked so good. By joining the growing ranks of wise businesspeople who are converting manure into profit-generating commodities, you can do wonders for your bottom line. The technology is here and it is cost effective. The question is: is it cost effective for your operation? It's easy to find out; right here and in just a few minutes. But first take a moment to review the information and photographs on the site, you'll see how other businesses like yours are using this technology.
GHD, Inc., Anaerobic Digesters Box 69, Chilton, WI 53014; Tel: 920-849-9797; Contact: Steve Dvorak - GHD has successfully designed and installed their patented two-stage mixed plug-flow digester system across the nation. Their anaerobic digesters are cost-effective and require low maintenance. By-products from the digester system include electricity, bedding, heat and liquid fertilizer.
Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Box 4715 - Berkeley, CA 94704 - T. (510) 834-4568 - Fax (510) 834-4529. EM: firstname.lastname@example.org. Mark Moser, President: Environmental Consulting, Agricultural Waste Management, complete anaerobic digester design, construction service, startup and troubleshooting.
23441 Rose Quartz Drive, Perris, CA 92570. Tel: 651-943-9697
Automated Methane Potential Test System II made by Bioprocess Control in Lund Sweden. The AMPTS-II is "...a revolutionary product in the area of on-site lab equipment for methane potential analysis. The Automatic Methane Potential Test System (AMPTS) II allows users to determine the true methane potential and dynamic degradation profile of any substrate.... allow users to more easily determine the optimal retention time and mix of substrates for co-digesting, screen proper pre-treatment methods, and evaluate the need for additives." [2011-09-30]
On-Farm Anaerobic Digestion For Swine Operations: Fact Sheet (2005) [KB pdf] Nova Scotia Agricultural College - An AD system can greatly reduce environmental risks associated with managing liquid swine manure. Technology advances and increased emphasis on environmental services have made on-farm anaerobic digesters a much more viable option. Producers are encouraged to explore the feasibility of AD for their operations.
Assessment of on Farm Anaerobic Digester Grid Interconnection. (2007) Natural Resources Canada. Wayne R. Ruhnke. This study serves to document the reality of market entry barriers to grid interconnection of AD Systems. From early reports on AD System demonstration projects across Canada, there appeared to be some interconnection barriers that were delaying implementation of those projects. View Full Report [1038 KB pdf]
Canadian farms taking in organic waste to boost anaerobic digestion. (Aug. 2008) Manure Manager Magazine. Organic Resource Management Inc. (ORMI) has signed a 20-year agreement to supply organic residuals to a farm-based anaerobic digester for Ledgecroft Farms Inc., located north of Kingston at Seeley’s Bay, Ont.
Optimum Sizing for Anaerobic Digestion (Mar. 2006) [437 KB pdf]; Emad Ghafoori, & Peter Flynn, Dept. of Mechanical Eng., U. of Alberta. Study is based on a consistent scope for all cases of anaerobic digestion in well mixed digesters, with production of electrical power from the biogas. Yields are based on thermophilic AD, although the choice of thermophilic vs. mesophilic well mixed AD does not create a significant cost difference. We discuss the potential to produce two gas streams from an anaerobic digester, carbon dioxide and pipeline grade natural gas (meeting specification for sulfur and inert gas concentrations), instead of electrical power.
BioGem Power Systems, PO Box 4094, Ponoka, AB T4J 1R5 - Contact: Grant Meikle Tel. (403) 783-8633; Fax: 403) 783-8699; Email: email@example.com - have constructed co-generating anaerobic digester at Iron Creek Hutterite Colony.
Bio-Terre Systems Inc., 12 Aviation Blvd., St. Andrews, Manitoba R1A 3N5 ; Tel.: (204) 334-8846 Fax: (204) 334-6965; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; technology is based on anaerobic digestion of livestock waste at a low temperature range of 10 to 25 degrees centigrade
Catalyst Power Inc. (CPI), Abbotsford, BC. Tel: 604-999-2653; E-M: email@example.com. CPI was created to foster the development of Anaerobic Digestion for agriculture, in British Columbia, and across Canada.
Inc. (formerly Genesys Biogas Inc.), 1390 Prince of Wales Drive,
Suite 107, Ottawa, ON Canada;
T: +1 (613) 224-8308; F: +1 (613) 224-1642 - Our AD Kits are offered in three sizes 500m³, 1000m³ and 1500m³. Each AD Kit can be packaged with a containerized co-generation unit, if desired.
|Packaged automation and controls for biogas production. Purifics ES Inc., 340 Sovereign Rd., London, ON N6M 1A8 email:info@Purifics.com - Purifics ES custom designs and builds packaged automation and controls for biogas production systems; also enhance agricultural processes with Purifics' water recovery and reuse systems.|
|Harvest Power (formerly Stormfisher Biogas), 1087 Green Valley Road, London, ON N6N 1E4; Tel. 855.321.7600; firstname.lastname@example.org - renewable energy company that builds, owns and operates biogas plants across North America. Working with the food processing and agricultural industries, we process organic by-products and turn them into natural gas and electricity; specializing in centralized biogas plants. Note: Parent company of Stormfisher Biogas went bankrupt, taking Stormfisher and it's projects with it. Harvest Power Acquires Biogas Project in London, Ontario; London Biogas Plant construction started in June, 2011, Plant is now in Startup mode (June, 2013) - See new information|
Octaform Systems, Suite 520-885 Dunsmuir St., Vancouver, BC, Canada V6C 1N5. Toll Free: 1-888-786-6282. EM: email@example.com. Providers of a very versatile concrete forming system. Our stay-in-place, PVC forms are ideal for the intense environments of digesters, aquaculture tanks, agriculture and even car washes. Watertight and corrosion-resistant.
Valley AgPower Inc. [877 KB pdf]; Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 47810 Elkview Road, Chilliwack, BC, Canada, V2R 4S5 (Tel) 604-847-0082; (Fax) 604-847-0082 - is a new company, based in Chilliwack, that will involve itself in the design, construction and financing of waste-to-energy projects in the agricultural sector that includes manures and mortalities.
Ontario Biogas Projects
|Klaesi Bros, Renfrew Co.. Dairy
farm, electricity production, expanding existing biogas
anaerobic Digester in Eastern Ontario [155 KB
pdf]. An anaerobic digester designed by Bohni (Swiss)
is now in operation on a 140-cow dairy herd in Eastern Ontario,
co-generating electricity being sent to the grid using a
net metering system. Monthly electricity savings are projected
to be about $1,200 (July 2003). See also:
Modular, containerized anaerobic digester combined heat and power system
Energy Yield of Feedstocks in a Dairy Digester [1300 KB pdf], D. Carruthers, presented at 8th Ann. Biocycle Conf., Madison, WI, Oct. 7, 2008.
Pinehedge Farms Inc.,
Prescott & Russell Co., St. Eugene, ON; 100 kWe Combined Heat & Power
unit, including steam generation for Yogourt production (8600 GJ annually).
Prescott dairymen George and Josef Heinzle, in conjunction
with Alfred College, each installed a methane digester which
processes manure at the brothers' two dairy farms and supplies
them with electricity.
Contractor: CH-Four Biogas Inc.; Ontario Farmer Article [15 KB pdf]
Terryland Farms Inc., Prescott & Russell Co., Dairy farm (see Pinehedge Farms above, same
family). Since August 2007, have been producing about 750 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity per
day from a 1,000 m3 digester, 180 kWe Combined Heat & Power
unit (15,000 GJ annually). Contractor:
CH-Four Biogas Inc.;
Grid Connection Commissioning Of 180-Kw Biogas Generator At Terryland Farm (Sept 2007) [PDF version]
|Ledgecroft Farms Inc., Leeds & Grenville Co., Seeley's Bay, ON;
Dairy farm, 1,500-m3 anaerobic digester will generate about 500 kilowatts (supply roughly
400 households). Contractor:Powerbase Energy Systems Inc.
Ledgecroft Farms Celebrates the Completion of its Anaerobic Digester Project with Open House (Nov. 21, 2009)
|Donnandale Farms Inc., Hastings Co.; 650-head dairy farm; 500 kw/hr,
1,500 m3 digester and on-farm system will be built by Power Base Energy Systems Inc.
from Carleton Place, Ontario - expected to be operational early 2009.
Contractor: Powerbase Energy Systems Inc.
Stanton Bros. Dairy Digester System, Ilderton, Ontario (pdf), Gary Fortune, Consultant.
Andigen Inc. Induced Blanket Reactor (IBR) System - over 800 cow herd, eventually expanding
to more than 2,000 milking herd. In operation, mid-2008; Initial electrical output: 300kwh.
See also: Farming Manure for Megawatts - U. Western Ont. News
|G.||Clearydale Farms, Grenville Co., Spencerville, ON; Contractor: Powerbase Energy Systems Inc. This project will involve demonstrating a modular, factory-built, containerized combined heat and power system and anaerobic digester. This modular energy system can potentially reduce the capital, installation and commissioning costs of AD systems.|
|**||ORGANIC RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INC., Woodbridge, ON, will supply a minimum of 5,000 m3 per year of organic residuals (20 yr contract) and pay a processing fee that will be adjusted downward based on the actual performance of biogas renewable energy produced from the material; Four farms: Klaesi Bros Farm, Ledgecroft Farms, Donnandale Farms, Clearydale Farms. See also: Cutting through the FOG|
|Growing Power Hairy Hill is developing Canada’s first Integrated BioRefinery (Growing Power Group & Highmark Renewables Ltd., Vegreville, AB. They have been operating the Integrated Manure Utilization System (IMUS)-technology biogas plant since 2004. The outdoor Feedlot has standing capacity of about 38,000 cattle (60-70,000/yr); The thermophilic A.D. system, which currently takes only 20% of the feedlot manure, has a 999 kw Jenbacher co-gen unit, which exports electricity to the local grid. The site is undergoing a $100 M bio-energy expansion and bio-ethanol plant, which will eventually consume about 120, 000 T/yr of wheat and produce 10.5 M gal. ethanol/yr, while providing GHG emission reductions of approx. 143,000 T/yr. The wet distillers grains (WDG) from the ethanol operation will be fed back to the feedlot cattle. When the expansion is complete in 2010, the system will utilize most of the manure from the feedlot and will generate approx. 5-megawatt of energy, of which half will be thermal energy to run the ethanol plant and the remaining 2.4 MW will be electricity production. Dot-com millionaires find their future in manure [473 KB pdf](Ottawa Citizen, Aug. 31, 2007).|
Hog Farm Converts Manure to Electricity. (2003) Iron Creek Hutterite Colony, Alberta. A methane digester that turns hog manure into valuable water, electricity and cash on an Alberta Hutterite colony is proving so successful that it has sparked plans for another digester near the colony's second hog barn. When Iron Creek built its first $2 million methane digester, it eliminated its yearly bills of $100,000 for manure injection and $250,000 for electricity, reduced its $60,000 water bill, cut its heating bill in half and earned $110,000 selling power to the provincial grid - all from manure. See further details of project by BioGem Power Systems.
"Advanced Manure Management Technologies for Ontario" (AMMTO). Project under Healthy Futures [announced Nov. 22, 2001] - The goal of the AMMTO project is to improve and protect the water quality of rural Ontario by providing a scientifically evaluated information data base of manure management technologies. The information will be structured to allow decision-making with regard to the scale and type of livestock operation, surrounding environmental conditions, and the concerns and needs of the local community. Solutions will address the need to encourage rural economic development and to improve the quality of life for rural communities through a healthy environment, as well as addressing the specific needs of the livestock and poultry sectors. Project completed Spring 2004.
See also -Net Metering
Ontario's New Green Energy Act - To make Ontario a global leader in clean, renewable energy and conservation, creating thousands of jobs, economic prosperity, energy security and climate protection.
Green Energy Business Information Bundle for Farmers (OMAFRA)- serves as a central website for information about green energy on your farm, whether you’re looking for ways to conserve energy or to generate it yourself.
An Act on Granting Priority to Renewable Energy Sources (Renewable Energy Sources Act) (GERMAN) German Federal Ministry for Environ., Natural Conservation & Nuclear Safety - Breakthrough for renewable energy sources - priority law is passed February 25, 2000. Complete Act [102 KB pdf] - There were a number of reasons for updating the legislation: the growth of the green electricity output beyond the five percent ceiling previously set for support entitlement, the need for a national distribution of costs beyond the regions, the lack of planning and investment security, and the adjustments required for compliance with EU directives.
The Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) (Ontario).
The hub of the electricity wholesale marketplace, connecting all participants - from the generators and suppliers
who sell electricity to the wholesale consumers and distributors who purchase electricity and sell it to consumers.
Today's Electricity Market in Ontario - Hourly information on current Demand & Price activity
Ontario Biogas Systems Financial Assistance Program - Phase 2 Application Instructions (OMAFRA)
Grid Connection Commissioning Of 180-Kw Biogas Generator At Terryland Farm (Ontario). [262 KB pdf] (Sept. 2007) Aidan Foss, ANF Energy Solutions Inc., Ottawa, ON. Terryland Farms Biogas consists of a 3-phase, 180kW, 277/480V generator connecting via three, 100kVA transformers to a 4.8/8.3kV utility feeder. A novel aspect of the grid interconnection was an innovative anti-islanding protection strategy involving a directional reactive power relay. Commission of the generator grid connection took place on 13/14th August 2007.
A Power Line Signaling Based Technique for Anti-Islanding Protection of Distributed Generators—Part I: Scheme and Analysis. (JULY 2007) [1500 KB pdf]. Wilsun Xu (U. of Alberta, Edmonton), Guibin Zhang, Chun Li, Wencong Wang, Guangzhu Wang, Jacek Kliber. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 22, NO. 3. Anti-islanding protection of distributed generators (DG) is a significant technical barrier to the emerging DG industry. This paper presents an innovative power line signaling based anti-islanding scheme developed in response to the challenge.
Anti-Islanding Techniques for Distributed Power Generators [1400 KB pdf]. Jun Yin, Dept. of Electrical & Computer Eng., U. of New Brunswick. Unintentional islanding is a situation in which local DG systems continue to supply power to the local loads at a sustained voltage and frequency while the main EPS is de-energized unknowingly. Islanding operation could be fatally harmful to the line workers and power system facilities. IEEE Std 1547™-2003 and IEEE Std 929-2000 require that islanded DG systems be shut down within a specified time.
Connecting MicroPower to the Grid: A status and review of micropower
interconnection issues and related codes, standards and guidelines in
Canada (2nd Ed.) (2006) [1100 KB pdf]. The connection
of small, privately-owned electricity generators to the public power
system has many benefits for Canada’s economy. However, the challenge
for governments and regulators is to allow this new industry to grow
in a way that is both safe and efficient.
Net metering, which allows the electric meters of customers with generating facilities to turn backwards when the generators are producing energy in excess of the customers' demand, enables customers to use their own generation to offset their consumption over a billing period. This offset means that customers receive retail prices for the excess electricity they generate. Without net metering, a second meter is usually installed to measure the electricity that flows back to the provider, with the provider purchasing the power at a rate much lower than the retail rate.
Net Metering and Interconnection policy in the US moves forward. [5000 KB pdf]. Awkwardly, costly grid interconnection arrangements and unhelpful metering regimes are among the most serious obstacles to the wider use of distributed generation. However, a considerable amount of change to state arrangements is taking place on both fronts in the US - not all of it positive.
Clean Power at Home [406 KB pdf] (May, 1999). Andrew E. Pape, Compass Resource Management Ltd.- The purpose of this report is to describe and analyze net metering as a mechanism to support the deployment of small-scale, distributed electricity technologies in British Columbia based on renewable energy sources. The deployment of distributed renewables offers several environmental, economic, and social benefits that are described in this paper.
Select Committee on Alternative Fuel Sources [936 KB pdf] (June 2002).Legislative Assembly of Ontario. See document P. 17 re-net metering - Recommendation - The Ontario government shall require the Ontario Energy Board, Independent Electricity Market Operator and local electricity distribution companies to develop supportive policies, practices and appropriate technical/safety standards, including CSA or UL rated-meters, to permit net metering across Ontario by December 31, 2002.
Net Metering. Electricity Updates, Hydro One (Ontario). Net Metering program offers residential, farm, and business customers the opportunity to lower their electricity bills by using environmentally sound Renewable Energy Technologies ("RETs").
Small grid-connected zero-emissions renewable electricity generation[113 KB pdf]. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Baseline methodology (barrier analysis, baseline scenario development and baseline emission rate, using combined margin) for small grid-connected zero-emissions renewable electricity generation: Approved baseline methodology AM0005; methodology is based on the El Gallo Hydroelectric Project, Mexico whose Baseline study, Monitoring and Verification Plan and Project Design Document were prepared by Prototype Carbon Fund.
Alternative Systems for Piggery Effluent Treatment [3750 KB pdf]. Environment Protection Agency (South Australia) and the Rural City of Murray Bridge; Prepared by FSA Environmental, PO Box 2175, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350; Telephone: 07 - 4632 8230; Facsimile: 07 - 4632 8057; Email: email@example.com - To prepare a report on alternative effluent systems that are available that would reduce the odour impact from piggeries. Specifically the report needed to give an estimation of the economic impact of the systems, including the extra costs involved and an indication of what size the systems may prove to be economically viable. In particular, it should address the following points.
Bioenergy Australia. Formed in July 1997 by the Energy Research and Development Corporation, in collaboration with RIRDC and the Australian Greenhouse Office
Bruce T. Bowman, Archivist
Last Updated: Monday, August 07, 2017 07:58:26 PM