Beneficial Management Practices: Environmental Manual for Crop Producers in Alberta (2004) - manual was prepared for Alberta crop producers to create greater understanding of beneficial environmental practices for crop production. The manual provides a range of management options so producers can choose those alternatives best suited to their own operation. See also: Nutrient management: An opportunity in Alberta's environmental legislation (Mar. 2003) [919 KB].
Livestock Decision Making Tools. manure management, composting, feeding, etc.
Nutrient Management Planning for Livestock Production. Landwise, Inc., #214 905 1st Ave South Suite 407, Lethbridge, AB T1J 4M7; Tel: (403) 320-0407; Fax: (403) 320-0462; firstname.lastname@example.org; 10 steps to preparing a Nutrient Management Plan; includes 7 nutrient management exercises .
Nutrient Management Planning Guide. The planning guide provides information, techniques and tips on how to evaluate fields, collect important information and calculate nutrient application rates. In addition, the manure management information in the publication is linked back to Alberta’s manure and nutrient application regulations, which are part of the Agricultural Operation Practices Act (AOPA), ensuring that management decisions meet regulatory requirements. The guide is divided into eight modules, and each module is broken down into chapters on specific topics. This allows you to quickly identify the specific information you need. View Full Manual [14,200 KB pdf]
Manure Nutrient Management - fact sheet
Phosphorus Mobility Study. AARD. Adding manure to soils greatly increased the amount of dissolved P exported in runoff. In contrast, manure additions did not lead to increases in sediment P export. Since dissolved P poses the greatest threat to surface waters, manure management strategies are necessary to help prevent surface water contamination. This research shows that soils vary in their ability to hold P. In addition, increases in soil test P with similar manure additions are not always the same for different soils.
Alberta Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture (AESA) Program. The AESA Program is a long-term, provincially funded program to facilitate the continued development and adoption of management practices and technologies that make agricultural production and processing more environmentally sustainable. (completed in 2001)
Impact of Soil Phosphorus Loading on Water Quality in Alberta: A Review [505 KB pdf] (Sept, 1999). Allan E. Howard, Barry M. Olson and Sandra Cooke, AAFRD - P pollution from municipal, industrial and agricultural sources as a major threat to water quality; pollution risk increases with higher levels of soil phosphorus; surface waters in Alberta are extremely sensitive to further phosphorus enrichment.
Alberta Manure Management Planner 2008. AAFRD. The Manure Management Planner (MMP) was originally developed by Purdue University for use throughout the United States. In collaboration with Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, MMP has been adapted for use in Alberta. MMP Download Page
Atlantic Canada (NS, NB, NFLD, PEI)
Livestock and Poultry Management (Atlantic Environmental Farm Plan WorkBook) [1484 KB pdf]. Eastern Canada Soil and Water Conservation Centre; various modules of workbook for livestock/poultry management.
Environmental Farm Planning Workshop (Proceedings) [1712 KB pdf] (Mar. 29- 31, 2001) Moncton, NB
Best Management Solutions for Agro-Environmental Challenges: ACLE Symposium 2000 [1481 KB pdf] (Atlantic Committee on Land and Engineering) Mar. 8-9, 2000 - ABSTRACTS - disciplines from Eastern Canada and Maine to address a broad range of topics on today’s agro-environmental issues and to discuss management solutions and alternatives.
Manure Management Guidelines (Feb. 1, 1997). - Guidelines for New Brunswick have been developed by the Land Development Branch, New Brunswick Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture in consultation with other government agencies and farm organizations.
Manure Management Strategies to Reduce GHGs [pdf]. Rick Hoeg, Demonstration Coordinator, Farmers Taking Charge Conference, Moncton, NB, B, March 16-17, 2006
Improving nitrogen management. Bernie Zebarth, AAFC, Fredericton. Top Crop Manager - Good nitrogen management has never been more important. Rising energy costs are driving up fertilizer costs, and environmental issues are receiving more publicity than ever. This makes fine-tuning fertilizer nitrogen applications an important business decision for potato growers.
Spring Nitrogen Tests. B.J. Zebarth, AAFC, Fredericton. Most of the N in soils is organic and must be converted to nitrate or ammonium (mineralization) before it is available to plants (see The Nitrogen Cycle section); nitrate is the predominant inorganic form in most soils.
Nitrogen Management for Corn: General Fertilizer Recommendations [145 KB pdf]. Sound nitrogen management for corn makes good economic sense. Optimal nitrogen fertilization is essential for achieving a successful, high yielding corn crop. Good nitrogen management also makes good environmental sense. Excess fertilizer nitrogen application increases environmental losses of nitrogen, including nitrate leaching to groundwater and emissions of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas.
Manure Analysis - Table 1 shows the variability of nutrient values for different depths in an unmixed liquid dairy manure lagoon. The variability is amplified in unmixed poultry and swine liquid manure storage facilities.
Agriculture Waste Management (3750 KB pdf). PEI Dept. of Agriculture & Forestry - SECTION A - Introduction; Farm Waste; Best Management Practices - SECTION B - Livestock and Poultry Waste Management; Manure Handling and Storage; Odour Management in Barns and Manure Storage Areas; Feedlot Management; Land Application; Manure Treatment; Fly Control; Milkhouse Waste; Livestock Pasturing; Waste Forage; Seepage From Farm Silos; Dead Stock Disposal - SECTION C - Potato/Vegetable Waste Management - SECTION D - Farm Plastics and Other Wastes.
Manure Management - general information for PEI
Guidelines for Manure Management for Prince Edward Island (Jan., 1999) - complete Guideline [1178 KB pdf]
Evaluation of Options for Fraser Valley Poultry Manure Utilization [338 KB pdf] (May 2003) - c/o Sustainable Poultry Farming Group, Att: Kevin Chipperfield, 4582 Bell Road, Clayburn, BC V3G 2M1 (Prepared by: Timmenga & Associates Inc., 292 East 56 Ave, Vancouver, BC V6T 1R3) - The poultry industry produced 745,000 cubic yards, or about 240,000 tonnes, of manure in 2001 and expects to produce an additional 80,000 tonnes of manure annually by 2010, for a total of 320,000 tonnes annually. 
Manure Nutrient Management Links
Soil Fertility Guide, Manitoba Agriculture. The purpose of this guide is to provide an overview of soil fertility practices in Manitoba and general fertilizer use considerations. Producers are encouraged to use this information in conjunction with reliable soil tests, their own experience and, when required, the assistance of a professional agronomist to develop effective, environmentally sound and economically viable fertilizer management practices. View/Download hyperlinked PDF Version (595KB)
The Role of Hog Manure Application in Maintaining Air, Water & Soil Quality (68 KB pdf) David L. Burton & Don N. Flaten, Dept of Soil Science, Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 - We examine some of the potential impacts of animal manure on soil, air and water quality and the opportunities to manage these impacts. In considering the negative impacts of manure it is important to also highlight the potential benefits of effective manure utilization....manure is a resource to be utilized effectively and not a waste to be disposed. Effective manure management can provide for plant nutrient demands with little or no risk to the environment. The following general guidelines should be followed in planning a manure management strategy.
Acceptable Phosphorus Concentrations in Soils and Impact on the Risk of Phosphorus Transfer from Manure Amended Soils to Surface Waters: A Review of Literature for the Manitoba Livestock Manure Management Initiative [2509 KB pdf] (May 1, 2003) (MLMMI Project #02-HERS-01) - Don Flaten1, Ken Snelgrove1, Ian Halket1, Kathy Buckley2, Grant Penn2, Wole Akinremi1, Brian Wiebe1, Ed Tyrchniewicz1 ; 1U. of Manitoba and 2AAFC Brandon Research Centre- The objective of this project was to review and adapt the bodies of existing knowledge on the role and fate of P in livestock and crop production systems specifically relevant to Manitoba, to identify the gaps in knowledge and briefly describe what should be done.
Management Information - OMAFRA - BMPs. EFPs, IPM, ILOs
Determining the Phosphorus Index for a Field. FactSheet - Agdex#: 531/743. The P Index considers many factors, such as the conditions of a field (phosphorus levels in the soil, soil erosion and soil runoff risk), the quantity of nutrients to be applied along with their methods of application, and the distance to the nearest surface water.
Land Use Planning. (OMAFRA) - Minimum Distance Separation Formulae Training Manual; Minimum Distance Separation Formulae Implementation Guidelines; Backgrounder: Improved Minimum Distance Separation (MDS) Formulas.
The Soil Fertility Handbook: Publication 611. Contact: Keith Reid, Soil and Crop Specialist (soil fertility), Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food - E-Mail: email@example.com. Ever wonder why soil tests differ? Which fertilizer works best? How to use manure in a nutrient program? Look no further than this new and exiting book. Whether you're a farmer, agronomist or salesperson, this handbook will answer all your questions to help you effectively manage soil fertility. Charts, illustrations, photographs and tables add to it's ease-of-use. 15cmX23cm ( 6"x9"), 160 pgs.spiral bound. Cost: $35.00. Order from: Publications Order Desk, OMAF, 1 Stone Road , West, Guelph, Ontario N1G 4Y2 Tel: 1-888-466-2372 (within Ontario) or 519-826-3700 Fax: (519) 826-3633.
Guide to Agricultural Land Use (Publication 824). The Guide to Agricultural Land Use introduces issues that may arise between people engaged in agriculture and those engaged in other land uses in the Ontario countryside. It explains the role of agricultural land use planning. For rural non-farm residents, it provides an overview of agricultural practices and how to minimize their environmental impacts.
Certified Crop Adviser Program
(Ontario). CCA Board of Directors, 39 William St., Elmira, ON
N3B 1P3; Tel.: 519-669-3350; Fax: 519-669-3826; Email:
affiliated with American Society of Agronomy, 677 South Segoe Road,
Madison, WI USA 53711; Email:
firstname.lastname@example.org; Web Site:
The CCA program is coordinated by the ASA and administered
at the local level by state, provincial, or regional boards. These boards
are staffed by volunteers with agricultural and natural resource backgrounds
representing universities, agribusiness, and government agencies.
The aim of this group was to develop a voluntary program for crop advisers
that would: establish standards for knowledge, experience, ethical conduct
and continuing education; enhance professionalism; and promote dialogue
among those involved in agriculture and natural resource management.
Relationship of NMAN output to tile drain water nutrient levels: field study (2006) [82 KB pdf]. Ron Fleming, Roberta Ford, U. of Guelph, Ridgetown Campus, Ridgetown, Ontario, Canada N0P 2C0 - Findings from the study showed that the mean tile water nitrate-N, total P and total K concentrations were 17.0, 0.48, and 3.8 mg/L, respectively. Different farming practices influenced the levels of N and P found in tile drains. Swine farming, growing corn and chisel plowing all corresponded to significantly higher levels of nitrate-N in tile water and in shallow groundwater.
Efficient Manure Utilization with Precision Sidedress Injection (2003) [1056 KB pdf]. B. Ball Coelho, R. C. Roy, E. Topp, AAFC, London, Nuhn Industries, GreenLea Ag Centre, A&L Lab. - Ontario Pork Final Report - March 2003 - Similar to fertilizer N yield response curves, corn grain yield response to varied rates of sidedress injected manure depend on crop yield potential, and yields level off as N supply exceeds crop demand. In most situations greater broadcast sidedress manure application rates would be required to obtain yields comparable to those where manure is injected.
Managing the Transition Between Municipal and Provincial Governance as Required by the Regulations Under the Nutrient Management Act (June, 2003)[1422 KB pdf], OMAFRA. Wayne J. Caldwell - report focuses on key issues that affect the relationship between the province and municipalities in the transition between municipal and provincial governance as required by the regulations under the Nutrient Management Act.
Human versus Animals: Comparison of Waste Properties (July, 2001). Ron Fleming and Marcy Ford, Ridgetown College, Univ. of Guelph. The following table is based on the information from design manuals for human waste treatment and animal manure production. It is an attempt to compare production on an equal footing, and includes waste generated, as well as other parameters typically of concern due to potential environmental impacts.
Review of Nutrient Management in the Township of Ashfield (Huron Co., Ontario) (Oct., 2000) [3,172 KB pdf]; J.E. McLellan. This report is presented in three parts. The first part of this report sets out a framework and proposes policies and actions aimed at significantly improving the Township of Ashfield’s ability to plan for and regulate new rural development, including new livestock operations. The complexity of rural development issues demands a completely new approach to planning. The second part provides a review of Ashfield’s nutrient management by-law, By-law Number 11 (and amendments made by By-law Number 17 and 18).
Nutrient Management Land Use for the Municipality of Kincardine, Ontario (Final Report May, 2000) [142 KB pdf]; Wayne J. Caldwell, Planner, County of Huron & U. of Guelph School of Rural Planning & Development; Municipality of Kincardine, 707 Queen St., Kincardine, ON N2Z 1Z9; Tel. 866-546-2736 The ultimate goal of this study was to provide the Municipality of Kincardine with recommendations regarding the appropriate manner in which to address animal agriculture in general and nutrient management issues in particular.
On-farm Measurement of Available Manure-N (1993) (1093 KB pdf). Ron Fleming, J.E. McLellan and S.H. Bradshaw, Centralia College of Agric. Technology, Huron Park, ON - presentation at Amer. Soc. Agric. Eng., June 20-23, 1993, Spokane, WA. Two on-farm manure tests were evaluated to determine their accuracy in predicting the concentration of ammonium-N in liquid manure. Both the N meter and the electrical conductivity method yielded reasonably accurate results. The estimates were far superior to those obtained using standard values.
Nitrate and Phosphorous Levels in Selected Surface Water Sites in Southern Ontario (1964-1994) [610 KB pdf], Ron Fleming and Heather Fraser. Ridgetown College, Univ. of Guelph - Is surface water in Ontario improving or is the quality dropping over time? Which land use typically creates the greatest contribution of phosphorus and nitrate to surface water? These are the questions that this study attempted to answer. Water quality data from selected surface water monitoring sites were examined. The sites were part of a network established by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment.
The Value of Manure - “Use those nutrients, Don’t lose ‘em” - [255 KB PDF] Dr. Jeff Schoenau, Univ. of Sask.; Manure 2000 Conference, Calgary, AB June 26-28, 2000
Maximizing the Economic and Environmental Benefit of Land Application of Animal Manure [pdf] (Mar. 2001) - Jeff Schoenau, U. of Sask. - Liquid swine effluent behaves more similar to commercial inorganic fertilizer due to its high proportion of nutrient in immediately plant available form while solid cattle manures contain more nutrient in organic forms which are more slowly released over time.
Managing manure as a fertilizer -Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food and Rural Revitalization - includes nutrient contents of various manures, and the forms that they occur in; Matching Application Rates with Crop Demand.. to maximize nutrient recovery.
Federal / National
A Review of Poultry Manure Management: Directions for the Future (235 KB pdf file)- Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Poultry Section, August 17, 1990 - A 63 page review, including The Chemical Composition of Poultry Manure, Processing Poultry Manure, Handling Poultry Manure, Poultry Manure Management - Guidelines and Legislation, Environmental Poultry Manure Management, Specific Topics Of Applications Of Poultry Manure.
Challenges and Opportunities in Livestock Manure Management (55 KB PDF) - Dr. Claude Laguë, Sask Pork Chair in Environmental Engineering for the Pork Industry , University of Saskatchewan and Prairie Swine Centre Inc. - Presented at: "Nosing Around Pig Science", Canadian Pork Council Symposium, October 2000 - Livestock production, including hog, will continue to be a very important component of Canadian agriculture and environmental issues and will play an increasingly important role in the continuous and sustainable development of this industry. Despite of all the recent research, development and extension efforts in that area, manure management will likely continue to be the top environmental issue facing pork production in Canada.
Does Balancing Nutrients Protect Water Quality? [107 KB pdf] News & Views, Jan. 2000 - Dr. T.W. Bruulsema, Eastern Canada and Northeast U.S. Director, Potash & Phosphate Institute (PPI) and the Potash & Phosphate Institute of Canada (PPIC) - Does balancing nutrients protect water quality? In agricultural soils that are contributing to accelerated nutrient loss, balance is critical for N and the ultimate goal for P. Intermediate steps to reduce P transport from these soils and delivery to watercourses may be necessary while the means are developed to achieve these balances.
Canada Animal Waste Management Guide [247 KB pdf] (1972) - Canada Animal Waste Management Guide Committee, Canada Committee on Agricultural Engineering - An excellent guide written more than 30 yr ago, and still quite relevant - several good tables on characteristics of various types of animal manures and on various manure handling systems.
Distribution and Concentration of Canadian Livestock Agriculture and Rural Working Paper Series Working Paper No. 47, Statistics Canada (Apr 2001) - Martin S. Beaulieu, Frédéric Bédard, Pierre Lanciault
Use Of Environmental Life Cycle Assessment to Evaluate Alternative Agricultural Production Systems [62 KB pdf] (1999). Sara J. Cowell, Ctr for Env. Strategy, U. of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey UK GU2 5XH - Proc. 52nd N.Z. Plant Protection Conf.: 40-44 - Environmental Life Cycle Assessment is an environmental management approach that is increasingly being integrated into company and governmental decision-making. At a conceptual level, it is called “life cycle thinking,” and approaches such as Product Stewardship and Producer Responsibility are built on this concept. However, the need for a more rigorous application of life cycle thinking to evaluate products and services has led to development of the environmental management tool Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) which is a type of systems analysis.
Environmental Benefits of Livestock Manure Management Practices and Technology by Life Cycle Assessment [242 KB pdf] (2003) D.L. Sandars; E. Audsley; C. Cañete; T.R. Cumby; I.M. Scotford; A.G. Williams, Process Eng. Div., Silsoe Res. Inst., Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford, MK45 4HS, UK - Biosystems Engineering (2003) 84 (3), 267–281; LCA is constructed to compare the total emissions from different techniques for managing livestock wastes - several pig waste management options; environmental impacts have also been expressed as a proportion of the UK national emissions . This gives each impact a weighted-value that enables direct comparisons of disparate impacts.
Life Cycle Assessment Of Agricultural Production Systems: Current
Issues And Future Perspectives (2007) [pdf]. K. Hayashi et
al, National Agric. Res. Ctr, Ibaraki 305-8666, Japan. The
applications of and recent issues on life cycle assessment (LCA) for
agriculture are reviewed in order to provide an integrated
perspective on environmental and food safety issues. First, the
relationship between the good agricultural practice (GAP) approach
and LCA of agricultural production systems is discussed. Second,
applications of LCA to agricultural production systems are surveyed
mainly on the basis of literature information. Third, future
research challenges that are related to the characteristics specific
to agriculture are outlined. Finally, a summary of the review and
practical implications of this study are presented. [2011-04-03]
The Application of Life Cycle Assessment for Improving the Eco-Efficiency of Supply Chains [431 KB pdf] (2002) Rene van Berkel, Centre of Excellence in Cleaner Production, Curtin U. of Technol., Box 1987, Perth WA 6485; Tel (08) 9266 4240; Fax (08) 9266 4811; Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a relatively new cutting edge environmental decision support tool recently standardised by the International Standardisation Organisation (ISO); paper provides overview of the status of LCA methodology and its applicability for supply chain in agribusiness, establishing Eco-management Efficiency as a normative objective for supply chain management; Eco-efficiency Objectives: 1. Reducing consumption of resources; 2. Reducing impact on nature; 3. Increasing product or service value.
Life Cycle-Based Sustainability Indicators for Assessment of the U.S. Food System [853 KB pdf] (Dec. 2002) Martin C. Heller; Gregory A. Keoleian, Ctr for Sustainable Systems,School of Nat. Resources & Environ., U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - report presents a broad set of indicators covering the life cycle stages of the food system. Indicators address economic, social, and environmental aspects of each life cycle stage: origin of (genetic) resource, agricultural growing and production, food processing, packaging and distribution, preparation and consumption, and end of life.
A Life Cycle Approach to Sustainable Agriculture Indicators - Workshop Proceedings [632 KB pdf] (Feb. 26-27, 1999). Ctr. for Sustainable Systems, School of Nat. Resources & Environ. U. of Michigan - Ann Arbor, MI - “A Life Cycle Approach to Sustainable Agriculture Indicators,” held on February 26-27, 1999, was the first in a series of professional workshops based on the compendia. The NPPC/CSS workshops aim to bring together key stakeholders to discuss the critical issues facing pollution prevention in each field.
Agricultural data for Life Cycle Assessments [1589 KB pdf] (Feb. 2000) Vol. 2. B.P. Weidema & M.J.G. Meeusen (eds.), Agricultural Economics Research Inst. (LEI), The Hague; LCA Net Food; EU Food and Agricultural program (FAIR); book deals with the problem of selection, exchange, and interpretation of agricultural data for use in Life Cycle Assessments. It contains the proceedings of the 2nd European Invitational Expert Seminar on Life Cycle Assessment of Food Products, which was held on 5 & 26 Jan. 1999 at the Agric. Economics Res. Inst. (LEI) in The Hague; Papers cover the following topics: energy consumption, substance balances (especially for N & P), and the use of farm typologies and farm accountancy systems for LCA data acquisition.
RISE: Response-Inducing Sustainability Evaluation at the farm level [174 KB pdf]; Fritz Häni, Andreas Stämpfli, Thomas Keller and Harald Menzi Swiss College of Agriculture (SCA), CH-3052 Zollikofen; RISE is based on twelve indicators for the economic, ecological and social situation: Energy consumption, water consumption, situation of the soil, biodiversity, emission potential, plant protection, wastes and residues, cash flow, farm income, investments, local economy, social situation of farmer family and employees.
Life cycle based environmental management and product declarations for food [241 KB pdf] (2003) Niels Halberg, Bo Weidema, Inger Larsen, Randi Dalgaard, Per H. Nielsen and Anne-Merete Nielsen; Danish Inst. of Agric. Sci., Danish Res. Inst. of Food Econ.- Paper for 82nd EAAE seminar: May 14-16, 2003, Bonn. paper describes the development of a set of Danish farm types based on a representative sample of 2239 technical economic accounts from farmers divided by soil type, primary enterprise and stocking rate. [040630
Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas from Maize silage and from Manure [715 KB pdf]. - for transport and for heat and power production under displacement of natural gas based heat works and marginal electricity in northern Germany. 2nd draft, June 21st 2007. Kathrine Anker Thyø, Henrik Wenzel, Institute for Product Development.
Implications of Uncertainty and Variability in the Life Cycle Assessment of Pig Farming Systems [81KB pdf] C. Basset-Mens, H.M.G. van der Werf, P. Durand, Ph. Leterme, INRA, UMR Sol Agronomie Spatialisation de Rennes-Quimper, 65, rue de Saint Brieuc CS 84215, 35 042, Rennes Cedex, France; Tel.: +33 2 23 48 52 22; fax +33 2 23 48 54 30; In a case study of pig production systems we propose a simple quantification of the uncertainty of LCA results (intra-system variability) and we explored inter-system variability in order to produce more robust LCA outcomes. Our quantification of the uncertainty took into account the variability of technical performance (crop yield, feed efficiency) and of emission factors (for NH3, N2O and NO3) and the influence of the functional unit (FU) (kg of pig versus hectare used).
Environmental impact of NPK-fertilizer versus anaerobic digestion residue or compost - A systems analysis [140 KB pdf]. M.I. Dalemo (Swedish Inst. Agric. Eng.), Ulf. G. Sonesson & Anna E. Bjorklund - A systems approach was used to evaluate the environmental impact of 4 different fertilizing alternatives in agriculture - 3 with emphasis on nutrient recycling from waste vs mineral fertilizers; some comparisons of GHG impacts.
Integrated Manure Utilization System Life-Cycle Value Assessment (IMUS LCVA) Full Report [354 KB pdf] - (Oct. 2005). Jesse Row, Derek Neabel, Pembina Institute - Overall, the initial assessments of the IMUS are very positive. Further investigation and demonstration is needed in some key areas to confirm the actual life-cycle performance of the operations, but early indications point towards improved triple-bottom-line performance of manure management for intensive livestock operations. See also - Highmark Renewables.
Glossary of terms on livestock manure management (2003) [560 KB pdf]. Recycling Agricultural, Municipal and Industrial Residues in Agriculture Network (RAMIRAN) - Brian Pain and Harald Menzi - A major handicap in international collaboration, and a major source of misunderstandings, in these areas is the lack of a standardised terminology. This is not only true for the translation between different languages but also within most languages - extensive glossary of terms. .
The socio-administrative feasibility of solutions - background study for the project "Nutrients, Biochemicals and Energy in Agricultural Systems in 2015". J.F.M. Koppenjan, H.H.M. Verheul and H.G. van der Voort. The Hague, The Netherlands, NRLO, 1997. NRLO-report 97/10. The project on "Nutrients, Biochemicals and Energy in Agricultural Systems in 2015" (HELI 2015) is aimed at setting up an NRLO research programme to find answers to the environmental challenges that await the agricultural sector in the year 2015. In this project directions for solutions have been formulated in a number of detailed studies which are aimed at reducing emissions and the use of additives. The Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management of the Delft University of Technology was commissioned by the NRLO to carry out a management analysis of the socio-administrative feasibility of these directions for solutions.
Prospects For The Recovery Of Phosphorus From Animal Manures: A Review. Julian Greaves, Phil Hobbs, David Chadwick and Phil Haygarth. Inst. of Biological, Environ. and Rural Sci. (IBERS), North Wyke, Devon, EX20 2SB UK ; This paper reviews the potential for P recovery from animal manures as a method of increasing the sustainability of the global P cycle. The P content of animal manures produced annually in the UK is currently estimated at over 120,000 t. Similar quantities of P are produced in manures in the Netherlands and an estimated 600,500 t are produced annually in the US. Up to 65% of manure P may be associated with an organic moiety. However, current methods to identify these including HPLC and 31P NMR are under developed while P fractionation procedures give only operational definitions. Combinations of current technologies developed for the treatment of sewage are likely to prove effective in the recovery of P from manures.
Environmental effects of manure policy options in The Netherlands. Oenema O, van Liere L, Plette S, Prins T, van Zeijts H, Schoumans O., Wageningen University & Research Centre, Alterra, P.O. Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen. Water Sci Technol. 2004;49(3):101-8. This study explores the effects of manure policy options for agricultural land in The Netherlands on nitrate leaching to groundwater, ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions to the atmosphere and on eutrophication of surface waters.
Land Spreading of Animal Manures, Farm Wastes & Non-Agricultural Organic Wastes - Part 1: Manure (and Other Organic Wastes Management Guidelines for Intensive Agricultural Enterprises. Owen T. Carton1 and William L. Magette2, 1 Teagasc, Johnstown Castle Research Centre, Wexford; 2 Dept. of Agricultural and Food Engineering, UCD, Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2. (May 1999) ISBN 1 84170 23 8 - Johnstown Castle Research Centre Wexford - Properly managing manure (liquid and solid) and other organic wastes on farms is essential to achieving sustainability, both in environmental and economic terms. Recycling animal manures back to the land is the most sensible management option. Full report (801 KB pdf).
Making better use of livestock manures on arable land [2124 KB pdf] Booklet 1 (2001). Brian Chambers, Nick Nicholson and Ken Smith, ADAS; Brian Pain, Inst. of Biological, Environ. and Rural Sci. (IBERS); Trevor Cumby and Ian Scotford, Silsoe Research Institute -14 page booklet provides practical advice to farmers on the optimum use of animal manures on arable land in order that pollution is minimised and the fertiliser value of livestock manures is fully maximised.
Making better use of livestock manures on grassland [609 KB pdf] Booklet 2 (2001). Brian Chambers, Nick Nicholson and Ken Smith, ADAS; Brian Pain, Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research (IBERS) ; Trevor Cumby and Ian Scotford, Silsoe Research Institute - 14 page booklet provides practical advice to farmers on the optimum use of animal manures on grassland in order that pollution is minimised and the fertiliser value of livestock manures is fully maximised.
NUMALEC: Nutrient Management Legislation in European Countries. Coordinators: Georges HOFMAN - This project is funded by the European commission under the programme FAIR (project nr 4215).
Nutrient Management for farmers and the environment (UK) [1082 KB pdf]. A NMP, including checklists.
Agricultural and Environmental Policies in the EU and their Impact on Fertilizer Consumption [162 KB pdf] (21 May 2001). Helmuth Aldinger, European Fertilizer Manufacturers Association (69th IFA Annual Conference, Sydney AUS) - The farmer’s perspective is -and will be increasingly so in the future - largely influenced by an interrelated combination of various factors, such as world market developments, policy effects in the EU and member states and other economic pressures such as the food and agricultural crises experienced in recent times.
Nutrient Management for farmers and the environment [1082 kB pdf]. Agricultural Industries Confederation, Peterborough, UK PE8 6HJ; Tel: (0)1733 385230; Fax: (0)1733 385270; E-mail: email@example.com - 10-page check list for NMP preparation, with references.
A method for livestock waste management planning in NE Spain. M. R. Teira-Esmatges and X. Flotats, Lab. of Environ. Eng., Dept of Env. & Soil Sci., U. of Lleida, Av. Rovira Roure 177, E-25198, Lleida, Spain; Waste Management 23(10): 917 - 932, 2003. A method of decision-making on livestock wastes management in areas with nutrient surplus due to high livestock density is applied in Catalonia (NE Spain). Nutrient balance is made considering soil nitrogen application as the limiting factor. Special attention is paid to the centralized treatment option.
An Approach to Nutrient Management on Dairy Farms [334 KB pdf]. Abele Kuipers, Frits Mandersloot, and Ronald L. G. Zom, Animal Sciences Group, Runderweg 6, 8219 PK, Lelystad, Netherlands - In the European Union, groundwater should contain less than 50 mg of nitrate/L. In The Netherlands, regulations based on P limited the amount of manure applied per hectare. A more balanced P supply to the land has been achieved by transport of manure from surplus to deficit regions. In animal production experiments, lowering the P content of concentrates and mineral supplements reduced P losses without an adverse effect on production.
Calculation of nutrient surpluses from agricultural sources (Technical report No 51) [688 KB pdf]. Philippe Crouzet, IFEN and European Environ. Agency, European Union - Statistics spatialisation by means of CORINE land cover - Application to the case of nitrogen. These conclusions strongly suggest that it is possible to carry out relevant and comparable assessments on a large area, despite the high heterogeneities of the statistics available according to the territories. Knowing in addition that aggregated statistics are quite often available for inter-census years, follow-ups over time become possible.
Nutrient Management Information for North Carolina, Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC Other Nutrient Management-Related Publications.
Best Management Practices: A Manure Nutrient Management Program AGF-207-95. Ohio State University Extension - There has been a great deal of interest in the management of animal manures in Ohio. This interest has been triggered by claims that animal manure may be part of the culprit in non-point pollution cases. Possibly the increased emphasis is due to the realization that manures contain very valuable plant nutrients. In any event, the State Legislature recently granted seed monies to assist Ohio farm producers to develop manure nutrient management programs.
Animal Waste Nutrient Management Program, Dept. of Ag Sci & Nat. Resources, Oklahoma State U., Hailin Zhang - Introduction, Crop Nutrient Needs, Soil Sampling And Testing, Manure Sampling And Testing, Nutrient Availability, Application Rate, Application Method, Best Management Practices, Rules And Regulations, Research Extension Programs.
Integrated Pest and Crop Management (IPCM) Programs University of Wisconsin Extension — Nutrient and Pest Management Program (NPM) and Integrated Pest Management Program (IPM)—work cooperatively to address critical issues regarding pest management, pesticide use, and nutrient management by Wisconsin farmers and landowners.
Cost-effective and Environmentally Beneficial Dairy Manure Management Practices [4135 KB pdf] (2005) Prepared By: National Dairy Environmental Stewardship Council for Sustainable Conservation - The objective of the NDESC was to identify innovative and successful dairy manure management options that are both environmentally beneficial and economically viable, and to recommend strategies for increased adoption of these practices. The NDESC focused on technologies or practices that warrant increased promotion and adoption, as well as those that are promising and worthy of further research.Managing Manure to Improve Air and Water Quality (Sept 2005). Marcel Aillery, Noel Gollehon, Robert Johansson, Jonathan Kaplan, Nigel Key, and Marc Ribaudo - Econ. Res. Service, USDA; Economic Research Rep. No. (ERR9) 65 pp- Full Report [1151 KB pdf] - report assesses the economic and environmental tradeoffs between water quality policies and air quality policies that could require the animal sector to take potentially costly measures to abate pollution, based on a farm-level analysis of hog farms, a national analysis including all sectors, and a regional assessment in an area with high animal numbers. See also: Related ERS Manure documents.
Livestock Manure Nutrient Assessment in North Carolina. (1996). J. C. Barker and J. P. Zublena, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. North Carolina is one of the leading US states in livestock and poultry production. In 1993, the on-farm inventory was approximately 4.4 million animal units, as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Current trends toward farm consolidation, specialization and intensification are sound from an economic and management perspective, but may fail to adequately address important environmental impacts. A nutrient assessment was initiated to determine where clusters of livestock and poultry are located, to assess manure generation by county, to determine the recoverable manure nutrients which can be made available for plant growth, to determine the quantity of nutrients required for agronomic crops and forages in each county and to determine the balance in each county between plant available manure nutrients and agronomic crop needs.
Effect of Animal Manure Applications on Crop Yields and Soil Quality. Randy Killorn, Alfred Blackmer and Antonio Mallarino. Dept. of Agronomy, Iowa State University - The components described in this proposal focus on how land application of liquid swine manure affect crop production and soil quality. We intend to find how time, method, and rate of liquid swine manure application affect mineralization and nitrification rates (Dr. Alfred Blackmer), phosphorus availability (Dr. Antonio Mallarino), and corn and soybean yield and recovery of nutrients (Dr. Randy Killorn). All the components are based on the assumption that funding will cover three growing seasons and allow time for preparation of a final report following harvest in the final year. The final report will include an economic analysis of the crop production data to help decide the type of manure management that should be recommended.
Fertilizing Corn in Minnesota. (2006). George Rehm, Gyles Randall, John Lamb, Roger Eliason, U. of Minnesota Extension. In Minnesota, corn is grown on more acres than any other crop. Nationally, Minnesota ranks among the top five in production. Average corn yields have improved steadily over the past several decades. While general fertilizer use contributed substantially to yield increases in the past, total fertilizer management which optimizes nutrient efficiency will be needed to increase future production and profitability. PDF version.
Poultry Manure Management And Utilization Problems And Opportunities. Bulletin 804, Edward C. Naber, Alex J. Bermudez, Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University - Introduction; Alternatives in Poultry Manure Management and Utilization; Poultry Manure Production and Composition; Converting Poultry Manure to Other Products; General Guidelines for Manure Management in Cage Layer Houses; General Guidelines for Manure Application; Guidelines for Utilization and Management of Used Poultry Litter; References.
Nutrient Management for Environmental Protection: Challenges and Changes in the U.S. (1999). J. T. Sims and A. N. Sharpley - Northeastern Branch of the American Society of Agronomy & Soil Science Society - Nutrient management has always been a key component of agricultural planning. Decades of research have developed and refined efficient, economic means to optimize plant nutrition and thus increase crop yields. Government advisory agencies (e.g. Cooperative Extension, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service) and private agricultural consultants have been able to transfer much of the nutrient management research into best management practices (BMPs) that are well-accepted by farmers today.
Poultry Manure Management Planning (MNP) -ID-206, Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 - Manure contains the nutrients needed by crops. Taking advantage of manure's nutrient value can reduce your fertilizer costs by about $50/acre. Many Indiana poultry operations generate large volumes of manure. For example, 30,000 layers produce 40 tons of manure a month or nearly 500 tons a year. Proper handling, storage, and application of manure from poultry operations protect Indiana's water resources and can increase profits of bird and crop enterprises. Managing these nutrients for maximum benefits and minimal environmental impact requires some planning. A Manure Management Plan (MMP) brings together information about crops, livestock, and manure handling for your farm. This information will help you develop a better long-term plan for maximizing the value of your poultry manure.
Manure Management, U. of Nebraska-Lincoln- one-stop resource for manure management and manure nutrient management planning in Nebraska.
Nutrient Cycling in Pastures. Alice E. Beetz and Preston Sullivan, Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas (ATTRA), P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702; Phone: 1-800-346-9140 ; FAX: (501) 442-9842 - How do Nutrients Cycle in Pastures?; Soil Organisms and Nutrient Cycling; Organic Matter is Essential to Soil Health; Pasture Plants Also Cycle Nutrients; Grazing Livestock Affect Pasture Nutrient Cycles; Nutrient Cycling in Relation to Other Natural Cycles; Supplementing the Nutrient Cycle (Jan. 1999).
Soil Resource Management Research Program. Nutrient Management Component, USDA/ARS - Vision and Mission; Planning Process/Plan Development; 1–Management of Nutrients for Sustainable Production Systems; 2–Basic Research in Soil-Plant Interactions, Nutrient Fate, and Transformations; 3–Soil Management Effects Controlling On-Site Retention of Nutrients at Farm, Watershed, and Basin Scales.
Manure Issues: Identifying nutrient overload, odor research report [58 KB pdf]. H.H. Van Horn, Dept of Animal Sciences, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville 32611-0920. Anaerobic digestion like that occurring in anaerobic lagoons was shown to greatly reduce several measures of malodor; How many nutrients are excreted by dairy cows? We have developed a procedure to approximate budgets fairly easily; How much of the excreted nutrients do you recover for fertilizer? A key measure needed to help evaluate your manure management is the amount of N and P recovered in the manure you recycle.
Use of Manure in Crop Production (No. 0.549) (09/1992) [57 KB pdf]. R. Hunter Follett and Robert L. Croissant, Colorado State Univ. Coop Extension - The nutrient composition of farm manure varies widely even for the same species of animal. In the past, animal wastes were considered to be largely solids. Disposal was a problem because it required handling a large tonnage of low-analysis material. Composition of various solid and liquid manures; manure production by animal type.
Manure Nutrients Relative to the Capacity of Cropland and Pastureland to Assimilate Nutrients: Spatial and Temporal Trends for the United States (Dec., 2000). Nat. Resources Conserv. Service, USDA - Data from the Census of Agriculture were used to estimate livestock populations, quantities of manure produced, and land available for manure application for 1982, 1987, 1992, and 1997. Livestock include beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, and poultry. A descriptive analysis is presented of the temporal and spatial changes in the number, size, and kind of livestock operations, and the changes in animal units, quantity of manure nutrients produced, land available for manure application, and excess manure nutrients at both the farm level and the county level. Full Report (24,247KB pdf).
Phosphorus Index, USDA NRCS - The P index tool provides a rating of the risk of P delivery from agricultural fields to surface water supplies that can be used to prioritize fields for nutrient and soil management practices. The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief overview of how the P index and variable-rate technology can be used to do better agronomic and environmental P management within a field. See also: Phosphorus Index Fact Sheet (Mar. 2001) [126 KB pdf].
Using The Iowa Phosphorus Index For Agronomic And Environmental Management Of Fertilizer And Manure Phosphorus. [139 KB pdf]. Antonio Mallarino, Iowa State U. The Iowa phosphorus (P) index is a risk assessment tool that was developed to assess potential P loss from fields to surface water resources.
Confined Animal Production and Manure Nutrients. Noel Gollehon, Margriet Caswell, Marc Ribaudo, Robert Kellogg, Charles Lander, and David Letson - Economic Res. Service (USDA) Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 771. 40 pp, June 2001 - Census of agriculture data were used to estimate manure nutrient production and the capacity of cropland and pastureland to assimilate nutrients. Most farms (78 percent for nitrogen and 69 percent for phosphorus) have adequate land on which it is physically feasible to apply the manure produced on farm at agronomic rates.
Liquid Manure Management (Fact Sheet no. 1.221) [pdf]. J.G. Davis, J.E. Andrews and M. Al-Kaisi - Colorado State University Cooperative Extension - Liquid manure is any manure to which water is added in the collection, storage or treatment processes. The word "lagoon" frequently is used to describe a pit in the ground where liquid manure is stored. True lagoons treat manure through bacterial biodegradation.
Animal Manure As a Plant Nutrient Resource (Coop Ext Service Pub ID-101) - A.L. Sutton, Animal Sciences Dept., D.D. Jones, Agric. Engineering Dept., B.C. Joern, Agron. Dept., D.M. Huber, Botany and Plant Path. Dept., Purdue U., West Lafayette, IN 47907- (Rev. 02/05/01) - The purpose of this publication is to provide you with information on how handling, storage, application, and use of animal manure can affect its value as a plant nutrient resource. Discussed here are: the factors that affect manure's nutrient content, how to minimize nutrient loss, general fertilizer recommendations for various crops, when to apply manures to certain soil types, plus related management suggestions for maximizing manure value.
Managing Nitrogen from Biosolids (1264 KB pdf) (April 1999) - Dr. Charles Henry, U. of Washington Coll. of Forest Resources, Dr. Dan Sullivan, Oregon State U., Dr. Robert Rynk, U. of Idaho, Kyle Dorsey, Washington State Dept of Ecology, Dr. Craig Cogger, Washington State Univ. Cooperative Extension Service - This manual is written for professionals and other persons interested in developing a comprehensive understanding of biosolids nitrogen management and learning an exacting approach to determining biosolids application rates.
Field Tests for the Nutrient Value of Manure. James C. Barker, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, NC State University, Raleigh, NC; North Carolina Coop Extension Service Pub #EBAE-181-93 (Mar 1996) - Taking a sample after agitation and sending it to a testing laboratory for nutrient analysis is always advisable but does not provide the results in time to be used to determine application rates. Therefore, a rapid field test to estimate nutrient content of slurries that could be conducted on site immediately prior to land application would improve the applicator's ability to manage the loading rates of livestock manure. NC State Univ. researchers have spent approx 2 yr evaluating 4 such "quick-test" field methods for determining the nutrient value of manure. Two of these methods appear to offer promise and will be reported on.
Regulations and Guidance for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs). US EPA - Proposed Rule for CAFOs; 2000 draft Guidance Manual and Example NPDES Permit for CAFOs; USDA/EPA Unified National Strategy for Animal Feeding Operations, 1999.; USDA - NRCS Comprehensive Nutrient Implementation Plan for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations.; Federal Regulations pertaining to CAFOs; Guidance Documents.
Livestock Nutrient Management Concerns: Regulatory and Legislative Overview (1999) [83 KB pdf] - Deanne Meyer (Dept of Animal Sci., U. of California, Davis 95616-8521) , and D. Denise Mullinax (U. of California Coop Extension. J Anim. Sci. 77:51-62. A greater focus on manure nutrient disposition from concentrated animal-feeding operations has developed from environmentalists, concerned citizens, and regulatory agencies. Livestock operations will need to comply with regulations to remain in business and to minimize environmental liability.
Nutrient Balance on Nebraska Livestock Confinement Systems (1999) [1358 KB pdf]. Rick Koelsch1 and Gary Lesoing2 . 1Dept. Biological Systems Eng., U. of Nebraska-Lincoln 68585-0726; 2U. of Missouri Outreach and Extension, Richmond, MO 64085. A nitrogen and phosphorus balance was constructed for 33 Nebraska confinement livestock operations. Twenty-five and 17 of these operations experienced significant nitrogen and phosphorus imbalances, respectively (50% more nutrient inputs than outputs).
Performance and Economics of a Perennial Cow Dairy Farm [21 KB pdf] (1997). C.A. Rotz and D.L. Zartman, US Dairy Forage Res. Center, U. of Wisconsin - interesting table of inputs & exports from a dairy farm in Michigan (manure, N, P, K balances).
Confined Animal Production and Manure Nutrients. Noel Gollehon, Margriet Caswell, Marc Ribaudo, Robert Kellogg, Charles Lander, and David Letson - Economic Res. Service Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 771. 40 pp, June 2001 - Entire report (2049 KB pdf]. Census of agriculture data were used to estimate manure nutrient production and the capacity of cropland and pastureland to assimilate nutrients. Most farms (78 percent for nitrogen and 69 percent for phosphorus) have adequate land on which it is physically feasible to apply the manure produced on-farm at agronomic rates.
Manure Management for Water Quality: Costs to Animal Feeding Operations of Applying Manure Nutrients to Land (June 2003). Marc Ribaudo, Noel Gollehon, Marcel Aillery, Jonathan Kaplan, Robert Johansson, Jean Agapoff, Lee Christensen, Vince Breneman, and Mark Peters - US Agricultural Economic Report No. (AER824) 99 pp, June 2003 - Full Report [1645 KB pdf] - New Clean Water Act regulations compel the largest confined animal producers to meet nutrient application standards when applying manure to the land. The additional costs for managing manure have implications for feedgrain producers and consumers as well. This report's farm-level analysis examines on-farm technical choice and producer costs across major U.S. production areas. A regional analysis focuses on off-farm competition for land to spread surplus manure, using the Chesapeake Bay region as a case study.Technical Documentation of the Regional Manure Management Model for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (Technical Bulletin No. (TB1913) 56 pp, March 2005) - Marcel Aillery, Noel Gollehon, and Vince Breneman, USDA Economic Research Service - a regional modeling framework was developed to evaluate the effect of Federal guidelines for farmland application of manure on the costs of hauling and spreading manure. This report presents technical details of the regional modeling system, applied to the Chesapeake Bay watershed. FULL REPORT [5004 KB pdf].
Fertilizing with Manure [200 KB [pdf] (PNW0533). Andy Bary, Craig Cogger, Dan M. Sullivan, Washington State University Cooperative Extension - purpose of this publication is to (1) describe how to determine the appropriate manure application rate based on the type of manure and crops, and (2) describe how to apply the manure at that rate.
Manure Management Guidelines for Western Washington [336 KB pdf] (April, 1995) - Dave Grusenmeyer, Becky Peterson, WSU Cooperative Extension - Whatcom County - This document was designed to help the agricultural community meet existing regulations. It provides operators with information on farm management practices that protect both surface and ground water. These guidelines will help managers develop, implement, and monitor a nutrient management plan designed specifically for their operation.
Manure Sampling for Nutrient Analysis: Variability and Sampling Efficacy (2001)[pdf]. Z. Dou, D.T. Galligan, R.D. Allshouse, J.D. Toth, C.F. Ramberg, Jr. and J.D. Ferguson. J. of Env. Quality 30:1432-1437; Ctr for Animal Health & Productivity, School of Vet. Medicine, U. of Pennsylvania, New Bolton Center, 382 West Street Road, Kennett Square, PA 19348 -study was conducted to investigate sample variability and reliable nutrient analysis for several manure types and handling systems. Serial samples were collected from dairy, swine, and broiler poultry operations while manure was being loaded onto hauler tanks or spreaders for field application.
Development of Standard Methods to Estimate Manure Production and Nutrient Characteristics From Dairy Cattle. (2003). T. Nennich, J.H. Harrison, D. Meyer, W.P. Weiss, A.J. Heinrichs, R.L. Kincaid, W.J. Powers, R.K. Koelsch (U. of Nebraska), and P.E. Wright (Cornell U.). pp. 263-268 in the Animal, Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes, Proc. 9th Int. Symp., 11-14 Oct. 2003 (Raleigh, North Carolina, USA) ed. Robert Burns. ASAE Pub #701P1203 - findings indicate that a better predictor for lactating cattle is daily milk production instead of body weight. Milk production drives feed intake in the lactating animal. It is most appropriate that estimated manure and nutrient excretion values reflect the relationship between feed intake, milk production (nutrient utilization) and nutrient excretion.An Assessment of Nitrogen-Based Manure Application Rates on 39 U.S. Swine Operations (2004). John A. Lorya, Raymond E. Masseyb, Joseph M. Zulovichc, John A. Hoehnec, Amy M. Schmidtc,
Feasibility and Costs of Phosphorus Application Limits on 39 U.S. Swine
Operations (2004). John
A. Lorya, Raymond E. Masseyb, Joseph
M. Zulovichc, John A. Hoehnec, Amy M. Schmidtc,
Fertilizer Value and Weed Seed Destruction Potential of Digested Manure [52 KB pdf] (June 2-4, 2003). Deborah Allan, Dept of Soil, Water & Climate, U. of Minnesota ; Elizabeth Katovich, Dept of Agronomy & Plant Genetics, U. of Minnesota; Carl Nelson, The Minnesota Project - Results to date indicate the following key preliminary conclusions: (1) stored, digested manure can result in crop yields equivalent to undigested manure or fertilizer when applied at similar nitrogen rates, while simultaneously allowing the capture of bioenergy; and (2) the digestion process does not appear to significantly destroy weed seed viability, although germination times may be impacted.
Nutrient Management Planning on Virginia Livestock Farms: Impacts and Opportunities for Improvement [669 KB pdf] (Jan. 31, 1997). M.Sc. Thesis, 192p. - Laura Snively VanDyke, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ. - This study provides an environmental and economic analysis of the ability to reduce potential nitrogen loadings to water bodies through the implementation of nutrient management plans on livestock farms. Study results indicate that nutrient management plans do result in significant reductions while maintaining or increasing farm income.
Managing Dairy Manure in the Central Valley of California [1943 KB pdf] (June 2005). Committee of Experts on Dairy Manure Management, Div. of Agric. & Nat. Resources, U. of California - There are approximately 1.7 million lactating dairy cows in California. Sale of milk from these cows is estimated at $4.6 billion of the state’s $30 billion agricultural market. Nearly 73% of the cows are located in the San Joaquin Valley, which consists of San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Merced, Madera, Fresno, Kings, Tulare and Kern counties. The Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board submitted a list of questions to Vice President Gomes requesting specific information related to dairy manure. The answers to these questions are the basis for this report. See also - Dairy Nutrient Management and Groundwater Quality Note - useful facts & Figures.
T. Bowman, Archivist