Manure Storage and Handling
Livestock Manure Pollution Prevention Project (P3) - Upper Thames River Conservation Authority (Ontario) - The Livestock Manure Pollution Prevention Project was established to develop approaches that protect aquatic habitat and water quality as well as prevent fish kills by reducing manure spills and runoff from livestock operations.
Automatic And Remotely Controlled Shutoff For Direct-Flow Liquid Manure Application System , OMAF - This Factsheet outlines the provisions in the Ontario Regulation 267/03, as amended, of the Nutrient Management Act, 2002 (the Regulation) and the Nutrient Management Protocol (the Protocol) that apply to the operation of manure pipelines and dragline manure spreading systems.
Best Environmental Management Practices - What to Do if There is a Spill [429 KB pdf] Don Jones and Alan Sutton, Purdue U. Extension & Charles Gould, Michigan State U. - publication provides an outline to develop an emergency plan for manure releases. Livestock producers should plan for potential manure releases, high animal death loss, and silage leachate. This plan should be readily available to and understood by all farm employees.
Managing Sand in Manure Handling Systems
Manure Sand Separation [112 KB pdf]Ira Krupp, Michigan State University Extension - Sand mixed with manure complicates manure handling by making manure difficult to agitate, pump, and land apply. (Picture 1) To improve handling characteristics of manure and to allow further processing of manure through new and developing technologies, sand removal must be the first step in the handling process.
Effective Means of Handling Sand-Laden Dairy Manure [223 KB pdf]. Curt Gooch, Cornell University Extension, PRO_Dairy Program and Andrew Wedel, McLanahan Corporation, Hollidaysburg, PA - Are you a producer who would like to bed your cows with sand but have experienced or heard horror stories regarding handling of sand-laden dairy manure (SLDM)? Or are you currently bedding with sand but looking for ways to improve your manure system? Would you like to separate bedding sand from manure? If so, then read on to get the real scoop on dealing with SLDM efficiently and reliably.
Handling Sand-Laden Dairy Manure From Barn To Storage [28 KB pdf]. Curt Gooch and Andrew Wedel, Cornell U. PRO-Dairy Program. Are you a producer who would like to bed your cows with sand but have heard horror stories regarding handling of sand-laden dairy manure (SLDM)? Or are you currently bedding with sand but looking for ways to improve you manure system? Would you like to separate bedding sand from manure? If so, then read on to get the real scoop on dealing with SLDM efficiently and reliably.
Sand-Manure Separator Process,McLanahan Corporation, 200 Wall Street, Hollidaysburg, PA 16648 U.S.A.; tel: (814) 695-9807; Fax: (814) 695-6684; email@example.com - The Sand-Manure Separation System can be installed into both flush or scrape systems. The following will provide the description of the sand-manure separation process.
Economic Analysis of Mechanical Sand-Manure Separation of Flushed Sand-Laden Dairy Manure (2003) [330 KB pdf]. Curt Gooch, Biological & Env. Eng. Dept., PRO-DAIRY Program, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY 14853; A. W. Wedel, McLanahan Corp., Hollidaysburg, PA 16648; J. Karszes, Dept. of Agric., Resource & Managerial Econ., PRO-DAIRY Program, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY 14853 [presented at the 2003 ASAE Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA July 27 - 30, 2003 - The analysis showed that the potential exists, from an economic perspective (based on limiting the benefits of sand-manure separation to reclaiming sand for re-bedding of stalls), for this treatment system to be utilized on dairy farms.
Sand for Bedding Dairy Cow Stalls [463 KB pdf] Curt Gooch, Scott F. Inglis, Biological & Env. Eng. Dept., Cornell U. - Not all sand is the same. Some sand is naturally cleaner (low organic matter) than others, some sand has more fine particles than others, natural sand has smoother particles than manufactured sand, and some sand is more uniform in shape than others. When evaluating sand for bedding, we want to look at some of the quantifiable attributes of sand relative to its performance as a stall bedding material.
Sizing and Management Considerations for Settling Basins Receiving Sand-Laden Flushed Dairy Manure - C.D. Fulhage, U. of Missouri; pp. 456-462 in the Animal, Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes, Proc. of 9th Int. Symp., 11-14 Oct., 2003 (Raleigh, NC, USA), ASAE Pub #701P1203; 2-chambered settling basin provides about 45 days storage in each chamber for the sand-laden flushed manure from 450 cows (1,400 lb(636 kg) Holstein cows). Settled solids accumulate in the basin at the calc'd rate of 2.14 ft 3 (0.06 m 3 )/cow-day, and represent volume fractions of about 0.55 ft 3 (0.016 m 3 )/cow-day for sand, and about 1.6 ft 3 (0.045 m 3 )/cow-day for manure. Sand accounts for a significant fraction of basin volume, and should be considered in basin sizing.
Economic Analysis for A Dairy Waste Treatment System that Employs Mechanical Separation of Bedding Sand from Scraped Sand-Laden Dairy Manure [205 KB pdf] C.A. Gooch, Dept. of Biological and Environmental Engineering, PRO-DAIRY Program, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY; A. W. Wedel, McLanahan Corp., Hollidaysburg, PA 16648; J. Karszes, Dept. of Agric., Resource & Managerial Economics, PRO-DAIRY Program, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY - analysis showed that the potential exists, from an economic perspective (based on limiting the benefits of sand-manure separation to reclaiming sand for re-bedding of stalls), for this treatment system to be utilized on dairy farms. For larger farms that can more fully utilize the system or farms that have high sand procurement costs, the benefits of the system would even be greater and may actually reduce the sand bedding expense for the farm.
Experiences With Handling Sand Laden Manure Using Gravity. (2003). J.P. Harner, J.P. Murphy, J.F. Smith, M Brouk, T.D. Strahm. 5th Int'l Dairy Housing Proc. of the 29-31 Jan. 2003 Conference (Fort Worth, Texas USA). Sand bedded free stalls may improve cow comfort and milk quality if properly managed. Inorganic bedding does not provide a favorable habitat for bacteria to grow. Sand laden manure can successfully be separated from the effluent using gravity scrape or flush systems. Recycling sand requires diluting the manure with water to cause the sand to separate from the solids and effluent. It cannot be recycled from a scrape system without a mechanical separator.
Engineering Analysis of Digesting Sand-Laden Dairy Manure. (2006).Scott Inglis, Curt Gooch, Michael Timmons. Paper number 064196, 2006 ASAE Annual Meeting. The feasibility of digesting untreated sand-laden dairy manure (SLDM) and sand-manure separator (SMS) liquid effluent was explored. The SMS successfully reclaimed an average of 46% by mass of sand from influent SLDM with a range of 39 – 53%, under two separate operating conditions over six sampling trials. The loss of fine sand in the SMS liquid effluent stream averaged 50% with a range of 43 – 58% of the total SMS influent sand mass, under two separate operating conditions over six sampling trials.
Sand Laden Manure Handling Options (2009). Kevin Janni, U. of Minnesota Extension. Sand bedding is very popular with many dairy producers until it comes to handling sand-laden manure. While sand is very comfortable for cows to lie on in well designed and managed freestalls, sand-laden manure is difficult to handle and abrasive to concrete and manure handling equipment including skid steer loaders, pumps and manure spreaders.
Siting to Prevent Water Pollution. (2007) Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development - Source: Beef Herd Management Reference Binder and Study Guide 804-1- Runoff; Seepage of manure nutrients into groundwater; Erosion; Direct access of cattle to surface water.
Earthen Manure Storage Seepage: A Study of Five Typical Sites (July 2001)[201 KB pdf] Agdex 729-1) Bill MacMillan - Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development - Observations and data from these five sites confirm manure seepage mechanisms, contaminant movement, and site design and maintenance requirements for earthen manure storages.
Geomembranes. Western Tank & Lining Ltd.,12180 Vickers Way, Richmond, BC V6V 1H9; Tel: 604-241-9487; Fax: 604-241-9485; firstname.lastname@example.org. The largest specialty contractor in Western Canada offering a wide range of membrane linings, covers & steel bolted tank systems. Project applications included, landfill liners & caps, leach pads, tailings dams and silt curtains.
BC Environmental Farm Planning. This Reference Guide is intended to assist producers in developing an environmental action plan for their farm. This is a plan that enhances our use of natural resources and reduces the possibility of accidental harm to soil, air, water and biodiversity values
The Effects of Earthen Manure Storage Covers on Nutrient Conservation and Stabilisation of Manure (Jan. 2001) (149 KB pdf) - Charles Liu, Doug Small, Dennis Hodgkinson, DGH Engineering Ltd., 12 Aviation Blvd, St. Andrews, MB R1A 3N5 (Jan. 2001) - it has been found that nitrogen losses can be reduced by as much as 82% through the use of a cover, and that although the extent of stabilisation of organic matter in manure is comparable for both covered and uncovered earthen manure storages during the winter and spring, covered earthen manure storages experience stabilisation of organic matter, as evidenced by reductions in VFA concentrations, at an earlier point in time in the summer than uncovered earthen manure storages.
Fluctuations in Manure Nutrient Concentration during Storage Pump-out (MLMMI 03-01-06)(2003) Full Report [160 KB pdf] - study was initiated to better understand the changing composition of manure samples within a storage and between different liquid swine manure storages used in Manitoba; study found large variations between hog type (finisher, nursery, sow) and at different levels in the storage. (top, middle, or bottom) It is well known that stratification, settling of solids, occurs in all types of storages and when agitated the solids are mixed back into the liquids. This project will look at a single-cell, two-cell, and a circular storage system during a typical application and characterize the nutrient composition.
Innovative Design for Manure Storage Facilities (2002) (MLMMI 01-01-03) Full Report [139 KB pdf] - Environmental concerns about the integrity of manure storage facilities have been raised in many regions across the country. Often concerns regarding potential leakage have motivated the public to resist the development of large-scale agricultural facilities. A recent survey performed by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food in Quebec reported that of the 28 concrete tanks that have been inspected, 23 tanks show serious deterioration of the walls (i.e., vertical and horizontal cracks).
Earthen Manure Storage Covers: Their Role in Nutrient Conservation and Manure Stabilization (2002) (MLMMI 99-02-06) View full report [287 KB pdf]; Study results showed manure quality was the same in open earthen manure storages or in those fitted with a negative air pressure cover. Organic matter in both types of storages was partially decomposed; nitrogen remained primarily in the liquid portion; and phosphorous remained in the sediment.
Segregation of Wash/Spillage Water from Defecated Manure: a Means of Reduction of Odour and Ammonia Emission within the Barn Environment. (2002) (MLMMI 00-01-01) Full Report [1108 KB pdf] - A technology to separate defecated manure and urine from spillage water in hog farrowing barns has been developed in the Netherlands to reduce ammonia emissions up to 50 to 65 percent. A project was undertaken at a local Manitoba farm to evaluate the potential for this technology to reduce odour emitted from a farrowing barn.
Investigation of Seepage from Earthen Animal Manure Storages (2000) (MLMMI 99-01-19) Full Report [115 KB pdf]; This project involves study of six established storages in three distinct geological settings in southern Manitoba. Contrary to what would be expected based on the usual hydraulic conductivity levels for Manitoba clay and till, the study showed contaminants from the storages moved deeper in clay than in till. These results suggest that fractures in the clay units examined acted as conduits for fluid flow, a factor that should be considered when developing design criteria for these kinds of storages.
Study of water Consumption and Waste Production During Different Growth Stages in Hog Operations (2001) (MLMMI 99-01-28) Full Report [118 KB pdf] - This study was initiated to quantify and update values used by the swine industry and regulatory authorities for water consumption and waste production for swine operations using modern management practices. A second objective was to apportion total water usage and total waste production into components according to stage of production and function.
Leaking of Liquid Manure Storage: Literature Review (July 1999)[603 KB pdf]. Ron Fleming, Jennica Johnston, Heather Fraser, Ridgetown College, U. of Guelph. In the summer of 1999, a literature review was carried out for Ontario Pork to investigate the state of knowledge on leaking liquid manure storages. An on-farm case of surface water contamination with liquid manure had raised concerns about the potential for new and existing manure storages (and transfer systems) to contaminate surface water and groundwater. This report summarized research findings and government approaches in the areas of: a) Field drains near farm buildings and manure storage tanks; b) Integrity of manure storages; and c) Manure transfer systems - from barn to long-term storage. It makes recommendations in the areas of education needs, design needs, and research needs.
Investigation of Manure Production in Typical 3-Site Hog Facilities (1997) [186 KB pdf]. Ron Fleming, Doug Hocking, Malcolm MacAlpine and Jennica Johnston, Ridgetown College, U. of Guelph. In a 12-month period beginning in the spring of 1998, a study was run to examine the impact of wet/dry feeders on manure production, manure nutrient levels, and water use in feeder pig barns. This type of feeder is a popular choice in feeder barns. Objectives of the study were: 1) To measure manure production in existing new 3 site swine finishing facilities using wet/dry feeders, and compare the results to existing storage sizing standards. 2) To propose changes to sizing specifications, if warranted. 3) To measure manure nutrient concentrations and determine the effect on nutrient management plans. Results detailing water requirements, manure nutrient levels, manure production levels are found in the report.
Sizing and Management of Manure Runoff Storages (1991) [600 KB pdf]; S.H. Bradshaw and Ron Fleming - Centralia College of Agric. Technology, Huron Park, ON. Presentation at Can. Soc. of Agric. Eng., July 29-31, 1991, Fredericton, NB - Manure runoff storages on 21 S. Ont. farms were measured once a month for 1 yr to determine runoff volumes from typical dairy and beef yards & solid manure storages. Current (1991) sizing information allows for runoff volumes totalling 45 mm/mo. x AREA for solid manure storages & feedlots & 70 mm/mo. x AREA for roof runoff and direct precipitation into the storage. These guidelines were adequate during 1990.91 when precipitation was 24% above the 30-yr average.
Manure Storage Sealing (Jan. 2004)[448 KB pdf].Ron Fleming & Malcolm MacAlpine, Ridgetown College, U. of Guelph; Final Report #01/37; Prepared for: Ontario Pork. There is a lack of knowledge on the ability of standard concrete floors to adequately prevent leaking of livestock manure. Previous assumptions suggested that the dry matter in the manure would adequately seal any normal cracking (caused by temperature changes or other stress) that form in a non-reinforced floor.
Liquid Manure Storage Covers (2006) [580 KB pdf]. Sandy English & Ron Fleming, Ridgetown College, U. of Guelph, Ridgetown, ON, Canada. Review of various types of covers used on liquid manure storages.
Prince Edward Island
Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Livestock Operations (Jan. 2005) [117 KB pdf] (28 pg)
Manure storage in Canada (2003) Vol. 1(1) - StatsCan (# 21-021-MIE) - article presents various characteristics of the manure storage systems on Canadian farms, with particular attention to the dairy, beef and hog sectors. The analysis presented in this document is based on results from the 2001 Farm Environmental Management Survey (FEMS). This analysis focuses mainly on farms raising livestock, regardless of the major commodity produced on the farm. View PDF version [728 KB pdf]
Concrete Manure Storage Structures: Specifications and Standards in Canada (2005) [1231 KB pdf]. Dennis Darby & J. David Robson, EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., 14940 - 123 Ave, Edmonton, AB T5V 1B4; information on types of manure storage structures, regulations, & specifications.
Big manure spill at dairy flows into Snohomish River. The Seattle Times, April 13, 2010. A 21 million-gallon manure lagoon at a dairy farm outside Snohomish recently suffered a "catastrophic" breach, releasing an unknown amount of manure into fields and filtering it into French Slough and the Snohomish River, according to the state Department of Agriculture.
..Laboratory Testing of Commercial Manure Additives for Swine Odor Control (648 KB pdf). Dr. Albert J. Heber, et al, Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Purdue Univ. (Jan 25, 2001) - Thirty-five manure storage pit additive products were evaluated by the Purdue University Agricultural Air Quality Laboratory in an experiment supported by the National Pork Board. Vendors voluntarily submitted their products to a well-defined evaluation protocol.
Feedlots & Manure Storage Systems. Bioproducts & Biosystems Engineering Dept, U.. of Minnesota - Seepage from Deep Bedded Animal Systems (I) (BAE 1999 Annual Report); Seepage from Deep Bedded Animal Systems (II) (BAE 1999 Annual Report) ; Earthen Basin Seepage; AEU-6 Site Selection for Animal Housing and Waste Storage Facilities; AEU-7 Impact of Heavy Rainfall on Manure Management and Water Quality; AEU-9 Mini-Pits: A Short-Term Manure Storage Alternative.
National Farm Medicine Center, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Illinois, 1304 West Pennsylvania Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 USA. In spite of growing efforts to create more awareness in health and safety in the farming community, fatalities due to manure pit accidents are still reported. The causes seem to be a combination of: need to enter manure storage; highly varied levels of toxicity from manure pits; lack of information on why and when dangerous conditions exist; the need for more effective education and safety procedures; and practical, reliable sensors to detect toxic gas conditions.
Reducing Contamination by Improving Livestock Manure Storage and Treatment Facilities. B.L. Harris, D.W. Hoffman and F.J. Mazac, Jr. - TEX*A*Syst bulletins, Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board - Improperly managed manure can contaminate both surface and ground water with nutrients and disease-causing organisms. Storing livestock manure allows producers to spread it when crops can best use the nutrients. However, accumulating manure in a concentrated area can be risky to the environment and to human and animal health unless done properly.
Closure and Abandonment of Manure Storage Structures (1997). Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). Provides information on manure storage structures that are no longer used to hold manure. (Acrobat pdf file download).
Typical Patz Gutter Cleaner Layouts. Patz Sales, Inc., Hwy 141 North, Pound, WI 54161-0007.Each of the plans shown below is available in either left or right hand installations. Gutter Cleaner configurations can be applied to stanchion barns, free-stall barns or loose-housing barns.
Manure Handling Equipment. Balzer, Inc., County Road 27, Box 458, Mountain Lake, MN 56159; Fax: 507-427-3640; Toll-free: 800-795-8551;
Berg Equipment Corporation,Box 507, 2700 West Arnold Street, Marshfield, WI 54449; toll-free: (800) 494-1738; Fax: (715) 387-6777; Choremaster Barn Cleaner; Hook Links & Barn Cleaner Flites; Manure Auger; Horizontal Manure Conveyor; Vertical Manure Conveyor.
Beware of On-Farm Manure Storage Hazards, Purdue University Extension. Bill Field, Extension Safety Specialist; The uses of livestock confinement systems and large capacity, on-farm, liquid manure storage facilities have become well-established practices throughout Indiana. The primary advantages of liquid manure storage facilities are that they make the waste handling process less demanding on your time and allow for applications of manure on croplands at more convenient or appropriate times. In general, there are three types of liquid manure storage systems being used.
Earthen Pits (Basins) for Liquid Dairy Waste (1993), U. of Missouri Extension. Charles D. Fulhage and Donald L. Pfost; Storage structures for liquid dairy waste range from low-cost earthen basins and moderate-cost concrete pits and tanks to higher-cost, glass-lined steel tanks. This publication deals with earthen pits, with and without concrete liners.
Lagoons for Storage / Treatment of Dairy Waste (1993), U. of Missouri Extension. Charles D. Fulhage and Donald L. Pfost; Anaerobic lagoons are earthen containers sized to provide biological treatment and long-term animal waste storage. They are larger than manure storage basins, which do not provide significant biological treatment or long storage periods. On the other hand, anaerobic lagoons are smaller than aerobic lagoons, which are designed to provide a higher degree of treatment with less odor production. Anaerobic lagoons also decompose more organic matter per unit volume than aerobic ones .
Lagoon Management (PIH-62); Lawson M. Safley, Jr., N. Carolina State U., Charles D. Fulhage, U. of Missouri, Raymond L. Huhnke, Oklahoma State U., Don D. Jones, Purdue U. A lagoon is a basin, typically earthen, used to treat and store manure from pork production facilities. A lagoon appears similar to an earthen liquid manure storage; however, it serves the added function of dilution and treatment. The difference is in the length of storage, in the amount of dilution added, and in the fact that a lagoon is never completely emptied. Lagoons are used extensively in the United States. They rely on bacteria to stabilize organic material.
Anaerobic Lagoons for Storage/Treatment of Livestock Manure (2000). Donald L. Pfost, Charles D. Fulhage, Dept of Agric. Engineering, David Rastorfer, USDA/NRCS; Lagoons may contain one of three types of waste-stabilizing bacteria — anaerobic (inhibited by oxygen), aerobic (requiring oxygen) or facultative (maintained with or without oxygen). Lagoons are larger than manure storage basins, which do not provide significant biological treatment and, frequently, are designed for shorter storage periods. On the other hand, anaerobic lagoons are considerably smaller than aerobic lagoons, which are designed to provide a higher degree of treatment with less odor production. Anaerobic lagoons also decompose more organic matter per unit volume than aerobic ones.
Storage Tanks for Liquid Dairy Waste (1993), U. of Missouri Extension. Charles D. Fulhage and Donald L. Pfost; Storage structures for liquid dairy waste range from low-cost earthen basins and moderate-cost concrete tanks to higher-cost, glass-lined steel tanks. Figure 1 shows a cost comparison for some typical structures. Due to the high cost of storage volume, tanks are not usually used to contain lot runoff. Tanks offer an alternative for waste storage in areas with karst terrain, where the site is rated as having a severe collapse potential and an earthen pit will not be approved. This publication deals with concrete and steel tanks but not with concrete pits under buildings.
Picket Dam Storage for Dairy Manure (1995), U. of Missouri Extension. Charles D. Fulhage; Dairy manure can be handled as a solid, semi-solid, slurry or dilute liquid such as a lagoon. Solid dairy manure contains significant amounts of bedding and no added water, so that the resulting material will stack, and it can be handled easily with conventional manure equipment (front-end loaders and beater-type spreaders).
Earthen Pits (Basins) for Liquid Livestock Manure (2000). U. of Missouri Extension # EQ388. Charles D. Fulhage; Donald L. Pfost, Dept of Agric. Engineering; David Rastorfer, Natural Resources Conservation Service , USDA - This publication deals with earthen pits, with and without concrete liners. Earthen pits (also known as manure storage ponds or basins) are usually constructed by excavation and forming earthen berms, and thus are partially below and partially above the original grade. (pdf version - 436 KB).
Selecting, Planning, and Managing Dairy Waste Storage Ponds (ANR-954) (1995) Fact Sheet. Alabama Cooperative Extension Service.
Earthen Manure Storage Design Considerations (1999) - NRAES-109 - ISBN 0-935817-38-7. Written to meet the needs of producers, engineers, and design professionals who are seeking information about designing, constructing, and managing earthen storages. Earthen manure storages are becoming more common for economic, environmental, and management reasons, but there is a lack of information about safe, environmentally sound, practical designs. It covers environmental policies (both existing and pending legislation); design standards and planning documents (such as nutrient management and waste management plans); manure characteristics; storage planning (determining size and location, loading and unloading methods, on-site soils investigations, and regulations); storage design (stability and drainage issues, types of liners, and safety); construction (quality assurance, earthwork, topsoil placement, seeding, and documentation); management (maintaining the structure, clearing drains, and manure management); and liability. A lengthy appendix provides guidelines and calculations for soil liners; other appendixes provide pump information, cost estimate information, and addresses for helpful organizations. Includes 26 illustrations and 14 tables.
Lagoon Liners,Field Lining Systems, 6970 NW Grand Ave, Glendale, AZ 85301; Tel.: 1-888-382-9301; Fax: (623) 930-1766 - Many types of materials can be used in the lining of these large applications, with the most commonly used materials being: Hypalon, PVC's, XR-5, XR-3, HDPE, LLDPE, MDPE, Clay Liners, and Polypropylene.
Geosynthetic clay liners (GCL), Colloid Environmental Technologies Co (CETCO) - 1500 W. Shure Dr., Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004 USA; GCLs offer several advantages over traditional compacted clay liners - improved hydraulic performance, easier installation and use of less air space within a landfill. Because of their unique self-healing sodium bentonite base, our liners resist cracking that typically occurs in compacted clay liners subjected to repeated freeze/thaw conditions.
A Profile of Manure Management on Wisconsin Livestock Farms (113 KB pdf, 27 pages). Douglas Jackson-Smith, Monica Nevius, and Bradford Barham, Program on Agricultural Technology Studies, U. of Wisconsin-Madison. Report provides a profile of the manure storage and handling practices on a random sample of Wisconsin livestock operations in the spring of 1995.
Nitrogen Removal in Wastewater Stabilization Lagoons (1999) [106 KB pdf]. E. Joe Middlebrooks1, Sherwood C. Reed, Abraham Pano and V. Dean Adams - 1Environmental Engineering Consultant, 360 Blackhawk Lane, Lafayette, CO 80026 - (technical document) Designing a lagoon system to nitrify a wastewater is not difficult if the water temperature and detention time are adequate to support nitrifiers and adequate dissolved oxygen is supplied. Obviously, providing recycle of the mixed liquor is a significant benefit. As with all treatment methods, an economic analysis should be performed to determine the choice of a system.
An Alternative Approach to Manure Collection: The Conveyer Belt System (2000) [351 KB pdf]- Swine News, Nov. 2000 (23#10). North Carolina State U., Coop Extension. The belt system, which separates urine from feces, has several advantages - reduced ammonia & odour emissions (<80% reduction); manure transport (solid manure on belt is 50 - 80% solids); low maintenance (belt life 5-10 yr); greater flexibility (use dry manure as fertilizer, amendments - easier long distance transport).
Design of Anaerobic Lagoons for Animal Waste Management [99 KB pdf]. ANSI/ASAE EP403.3 July 1999 - This Engineering Practice describes the minimum criteria for design and operation of anaerobic animal waste lagoons located in predominantly rural or agricultural areas.
Waste Management: Dairy Publications (University of Missouri)
Corrosion Control of Agricultural Equipment and Buildings [131 KB pdf] - (UK) National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, UK; Corrosion. The extent of corrosion of a metal depends on its local environment; behaviour in the atmosphere, in permanently wet conditions, and in soil, is different, and metals and protective treatments must be chosen accordingly.
Bruce T. Bowman, Archivist