Cattle grazing on pasture


1985 - 1991: Rural Beaches Strategy Program
1991 - 1996: C.U.R.B. Program

Seagulls on beach
Warning Sign - unsafe for swimming




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Significant enrichment and bacterial contamination in southern Ontario rivers and lakes originates from rural sources. The discharge of waste material to streams can result in elevated bacterial concentrations, nuisance algae blooms, fish kills, and present a potential health hazard to humans and livestock using the water.

Watershed studies have found that a multitude of pollution sources and pathways may affect beaches in Ontario, which include the following.

  1. Urban sanitary and stormwater runoff,
  2. Direct livestock manure access to watercourses,
  3. Inadequate manure management practices,
  4. Direct discharge of milkhouse wastes,
  5. Contaminated field tile systems, and
  6. Faulty septic systems

The impact upon beaches from any of these sources, either singly or in combination, can range from a few days of elevated concentrations to resulting in complete seasonal closures. Numerous beach closings in 1983 and 1984, drew public and government attention to the severity of this water quality problem.

In 1985, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment's (MOE) Water Resources Branch formulated the Provincial Rural Beaches Strategy Program. Directed by the Provincial Rural Beaches Planning and Advisory Committee, it included representatives from MOE, Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF), the Ministry of Health, and Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR). Studies were carried out and reports produced which identified and quantified agricultural bacterial and phosphorus sources upstream of recreational water bodies.

In 1991, Clean Up Rural Beaches (CURB) Program Program was announced as a ten-year program. The overall objective of the CURB Program was to identify the relative impact of pollution sources, and develop a course of action leading to the restoration and long term maintenance of acceptable water quality at provincial rural beaches.

CURB was to be a technical assistance and financial incentive program to encourage improved rural land management practices to reduce the impact from upstream pollution sources on rural swimming beaches.

The CURB Program addressed water quality problems in 150 subwatersheds in Southern Ontario. Approximately $20.0 million was distributed as grants for 3,512 projects. Watershed-wide baseline monitoring data previously did not indicate substantial improvements in water quality; however the data indicated that significant local improvements were achieved through implementation of CURB projects. Based on previous experience, about one half of the total number of problems would have to be remediated before downstream beaches could be re-opened.

Through on-site research and full scale demonstrations of new and innovative technologies CURB provided effective education, extension, and technology transfer to the client group.

However, as a result of the Ontario Government's Economic Statement in November 1995, the CURB Program was terminated prematurely, effective March 31, 1996.


1.1  Program History

In 1983, pollution of public swimming beaches became a significant issue. The Grand Bend beach on Lake Huron was posted as being unsafe for swimming for the first time. In addition, approximately 10% of the 1,300 provincially monitored beaches failed the 100 Faecal Coliform/100mL guideline for body contact recreation. The government of the day expressed concern about the rapid increase in the number of closures, particularly in areas where urban pollution sources were not identified as the origin. and resolved to remedy the situation.

In the Fall of 1985, the Provincial Cabinet provided a budget to establish a Provincial Beaches Strategy to assess the problem and to provide solutions for rural and urban beaches. The strategy was implemented through the Beaches Improvement Program which dealt with both urban and rural problems. The CURB Program focused on rural issues and was directed and co-ordinated by the Science and Technology Branch. The other component - Urban Beaches Improvement - was managed by the Program Development Branch.

Clean Up Rural Beaches (CURB) Development Program 1986 to 1990.

 The CURB Development Program carried out studies to identify the sources of pollution contributing to the degraded water quality observed at the beaches and to develop plans of action to eliminate or significantly reduce beach closures: This was to be completed within a 10 year time frame. Participating conservation authorities were contracted to undertake studies at the watershed level. By March of 1995, a total of 28 conservation authorities satisfactorily developed and completed watershed specific remedial action plans known as Clean Up Rural Beaches (CURB) Plans.

The CURB Plans identified two general categories of contamination that affect rural beaches.

  1. The first category included contamination from continuous sources such as livestock access to streams, inappropriate handling and disposal of milkhouse waste and failed private on-site sewage systems.
  2. The second category included periodic contamination from runoff generated by rainfall and snowmelt from inadequate manure storage facilities, barnyards and feedlots, manure spills and spreading practices.

Clean Up Rural Beaches (CURB) Program 1991 to March 31. 1996

The Clean Up Rural Beaches (CURB) Program was initiated to implement the recommendations of the CURB plans. The initial objective of the program was to eliminate or substantially to reduce the number of beach closures in eight Ontario watersheds which had plans prepared by the local CA.

CURB sufficiently resolved the environmental problems to be able to re-open the Binbrook Reservoir (Niagara Peninsula), Kelso (Halton Region), and Testa Heights (Lake Simcoe) beaches.

1.2  CURB Program Description

The Clean Up Rural Beaches (CURB) Program was announced as a $57 million capital grant assistance program, to run from September 1, 1991 to August 31, 2001, to clean up rural beaches in Ontario. Approximately $50 million was to be made available to the farmers with the remaining funds addressed to implementing the Program through education, extension, and local awareness programs, and on-site research and demonstration of new and innovative technologies. Participating Conservation Authorities (CAs) operated within a 5-year window of eligibility to deliver the voluntary Program locally to rural landowners.

The CURB program was targeted only to watersheds upstream of rural beaches. Funds were allocated to very specific areas of rural Ontario and directed to projects to achieve water quality improvement in local watercourses and to re-open downstream rural beaches.


In 1991, the goal of the CURB Program was to eliminate or substantially reduce the number of public beach closures by encouraging improved rural land management practices in order to reduce the impact of upstream pollution sources.


The six major CURB Program objectives to be achieved on a voluntary basis were:

  1. To provide financial, operational and technical support and assistance to clients in watersheds with an MOEE approved CURB Plan;
  2. To improve local surface water quality through improved rural land management practices;
  3. To provide extension, education and technology transfer services;
  4. To provide capital assistance grants to qualifying rural landowners who identify water pollution problems and propose acceptable solutions;
  5. To provide guidelines for and technical support to local CURB review committees to receive, review, and recommend approval of project proposals from local participants; and,
  6. To provide funds to participating conservation authorities for program delivery, promotion, on-farm research, demonstrations, evaluation, and water quality monitoring.



Participating Conservation Authorities (1994) [pdf version 51 KB pdf]

With financial and technical assistance from the MOE, local Conservation Authorities carried out studies under the direction of a local technical steering committee. Chaired by an MOE regional staff, the committees typically included representation from OMAF, MNR, the Medical Officer of Health, Conservation Authority, the local Federation of Agriculture, and a local farmer. The chairs of the local committees assured communication between all the projects by participating on the Provincial Committee.

The primary objective of each local study was to identify the relative impact of pollution sources, their pathways to beaches, and to develop a Clean Up Rural Beaches (CURB) plan specific to the watershed upstream of each beach. The CURB plan develops remedial strategy options and respective cost estimates for each beach through:

  1. Field inspections,
  2. Farmer consultations,
  3. Water quality monitoring, and
  4. Basic mathematical modelling techniques.

Recommended actions included both measures for specific beaches and broader scale Provincial measures based on cumulative results of component studies. The following related research projects were also MOE funded and undertaken by various Conservation Authorities to improve our understanding of bacterial and nutrient dynamics:

  1. In-situ bacterial survival studies determined longevity in watercourses, offshore of beaches, in sediments, and in milkhouse washwater tiles.
  2. Biotracer studies determined the speed and nature of travel for bacteria introduced into a watercourse.
  3. A liquid manure spreading study examined bacterial movement through the soil column and exiting field tile drains.
  4. A target sub-basin study evaluated the effectiveness of a watershed with comprehensive remedial measures.

Numerous demonstration farms have been established with the cooperation of local farmers to display innovative management practices. Research continues on their effectiveness at improving water quality.


  Rural Beaches Strategy /CURB Reports  
  1. All Reports in pdf format and arranged chronologically.
  2. "Related Reports" = Projects related to, but not part of the CURB Program
  Summary / Final Reports  


Clean Up Rural Beaches (CURB) Program: Interim Final Report, March 1996 [566 KB]  



Strategies for the development, implementation and monitoring of agricultural nonpoint source pollution control programs in Ontario (April, 1999) Anne Loeffler, Listowell, ON . Appendix A - Clean Up Rural Beaches Program Summary (1991-96)   [1745 KB pdf]  

Data Sets 

Related Manure Management Awareness Program, Summary Report 1986  
  Rural Beaches Strategy Program:  Target Sub-Basin Study Report (1987) Doug Hocking [2301 KB] 9 tables, 2 maps
  Rural Beaches Strategy Program, Target Sub-Basin Study Report, Oct. 1988. Doug Hocking [2673 KB]  
Related Response Of Fecal Bacteria And Water Chemistry in an Agricultural Drain to Remedial Construction Activities on Livestock Farms. Aug., 1988 [777 KB]  
  Rural Beaches Strategy Program: Target Sub-Basin Study Report, April 1, 1988 - April 30, 1989.  Doug Hocking, Donna Dean. [1924 KB] 19 figures, 4 data tables
  Rural Beaches Srategy Program: Ausable Bayfield Conservation Authority Target Sub-Basin Study Report.  (April, 1989). Doug Hocking, Jackie Schottroff  [3624 KB] 15 figures; appendices -  extensive water quality data tables
  Lake Huron Beaches in the Ausable Bayfield Watershed Plan (1989). [2416 KB] 10 tables, 10 figures, 2 maps Appendices - 15 tables, 20 figures
  Target Sub-basin Study Report (Apr. 1987- Mar 1988). Doug Hocking [2744 KB]  
  Target Sub-Basin Study: Annual Report, 1991. Doug Hocking [2091 KB]  
Related The Effect of Liquid Farm Waste Application on Receiving Water Quality. Final Report. April 1991. Donna Dean & Mary Ellen Foran  [4064 KB]  
  1995 Annual Report. Doug Hocking. [2466 KB] 22 graphs, 1 data table
  1991-96 Final Annual Report, [5722 KB] (March 1996). Doug Hocking. 18 figures, 4 tables, 3 appendices /w 12 data tables
Related Comparison of Liquid Manure Spreading Practices on Tile Drain Water Quality: Final Report, July 1992  
Related Comparison of Solid, Liquid and Storage Runoff Manure on Tile Drain and Groundwater Quality: Final Report, March 1993.  
Related Rapid Fecal Coliform and Escherichia coli Detection in the Recreational Waters of Lake Huron Beaches and an Inland Beach in 1997. Jason Aldom et al., [677 KB]  
Catfish Creek  / Kettle Creek  
  Catfish Creek / Kettle Creek Conservation Authorities CURB Summary Report (1992). Margaret Steele [1696 KB] 36 figures, 7 tables, 4 appendices /w 24 data tables (N, P, 10 parameters)
   Catfish Creek and Kettle Creek Plan, 1994. Donald Depuydt [1011 KB] 8 figures, 6 appendices, incl. 34 water quality data tables
Related Catfish Creek Drainage Basin Study: Surface Water Hydrology, Quality, Biology & Waste Loading Guidelines. 1978  
Related Kettle Creek/ Lake Erie Task Force: Water Quality Summary Report (1995) Lori McMaster,  
Credit Valley
  West Credit River Watershed Plan  (1994). Credit Valley C.A. [462 KB] 12 figures, 9 tables, Appendices - several CURB model tables
  1994-95 Annual Report, West Credit River Watershed. Marta Soucek,  Credit Valley Conservation Authority [2327 KB] 18 figures, appendices /w  25 water quality data tables
Related West Credit Subwatershed Study: Characterization Report, Jan. 1998. (not part of CURB, but a follow-on activity) [1419 KB] detailed report
Essex Region  
  CURB Plan for Big Creek & Other Watersheds in the Essex Region Conservation Authority (1992). Gregory J. O'Neill [612 KB] 5 figures, 11 appendices /w 10 data tables (N & P water data)
Ganaraska Region  
  Ganaraska River, Cobourg Brook & Baltimore Creek Watershed Plan (1994). Don Robertson. [968 KB] 6 tables, 9 figures, 4 appendices /w 9 water quality tables for 1993
Grand River  
  Grand River Rural Beaches Program, Guelph Lake Watershed Study Phase 1: Livestock Manure Management & Water Quality Study. 1987 Progress Report . Grant Hodgins, Mary-Ann Koekkoek [1962 KB] 8 tables, 32 figures,
appendices - 15 data tables
  Upper Nith, Upper Speed and Upper Conestogo Watersheds Plan (1989).  [971 KB] 3 figures, 1 table.
  Grand River Conservation Authority CURB 1992 Report.  Tracey Ryan [2125 KB] 24 figures, 6 maps, appendices - 18 water qual. data tables
  Grand River Conservation Authority 1993 Progress Report . Tracey Ryan
[3254 KB]
33 figures, 6 maps, 18 water quality data tables (14 parameters)
  Grand River Conservation Authority 1994 Progress Report. Tracey Ryan [3468 KB] 36 figures, appendices /w 29 water quality data tables, 13 parameters
  Grand River Conservation Authority Nutrient Management Pilot Project (1994). Lori Gordon  [86 KB] sample analyses data for various types of liquid & solid animal manures
  Stream Assessment, Kabbes Farm, Farley Creek Tributary, Upper Conestogo River. Lisa DeGoes, Jim Hartman.. [1387 KB] (circa 1994-95) 6 appendices /w 7 maps, 8 data tables
  Stream Assessment, Steckly Drain, Upper Nith River. Lisa DeGoes, Jim Hartman. [1685 KB] (circa 1994-95) 7 appendices /w 6 maps, 3 figures,  15 data tables
Related Sauble River Watershed Drainage Study, Dec. 1984. Sauble Valley Conservation Authority. [2785 KB]  
Related Sauble River Watershed Hydrologic Study. Nov. 1985. [415 KB]  
  Sauble River Watershed Beaches Impact Study.  (1986). [1160 KB]  
  Sauble River Watershed Plan (1991). Grey Sauble C.A. [1970 KB] 15 figures, 8 tables,11 appendices
  1995 Annual Report. John Bittorf. [1608 KB]  23 figures
Halton Region  
  Rural Beaches Program 1990 Progress Report, Halton Region Conservation Authority. Paul Albanese. [3128 KB] 36 figures, 2 tables, appendices /w sediment analysis data
  1991 Rural Beaches Program For the 16-Mile Creek Watershed,  David Gale [2649 KB] 22 figures, 6 appendices /w 13 water quality data tables
  1992 Annual Report for the 16-Mile Creek Watershed. David Gale. [2642 KB] 6 figures; appendices- 18 water quality tables, 30 figures
  1993 Annual Report for the 16-Mile Creek Watershed.  David Gale. [2336 KB] 5 figures; appendices - 31 water quality data tables,  30 graphs
  1994 Annual Report for the 16-Mile Creek Watershed.  David Gale. [1316 KB] 5 figures; appendices- 26 water quality data tables; 28 graphs
  1995 Annual Report for the 16-Mile Creek Watershed. David Gale. [1679 KB] 5 figures; appendices - 25 water quality data tables;  30 Graphs
Hamilton Region  
  Spencer Creek Watershed Plan,  David Gale. (after 1993) [4110 KB] 16 figures,  7 appendices, 39 water quality data tables, 32 graphs
  Spencer Creek Watershed 1995 Annual Report.  David Gale. [2157 KB] 3 figures; appendices - 29 water quality data tables, 32 graphs
Lake Simcoe Region  
  Beaverton River Drainage Basin Plan (1989).  [1233 KB] 8 figures,  6 tables
  Pefferlaw Brook Drainage Basin Plan (1989).  [1601 KB] 16 figures,  11 tables
Long Point  Region  
  CURB Plan for Hay, Dedrich & Big Otter Creek Watersheds. 1992. Arnel Fausto, Scott Finucan [4248 KB] 40 figures,
  CURB Plan for the Big Otter Creek. 1992. J. Arnel Fausto.  [251 KB]  
Lower Thames Valley  
  Rural Beaches Program, Sharon Creek Water Quality Study, 1992 Progress Report. Kevin S. Cincurak.  [1396 KB] 10 figures, 28 water quality data tables (N,P, bacteria)
  Clear Creek, Sharon Creek, 16-Mile Creek & Rondeau Bay Watershed Plan (Mar. 1994),  [1072 KB]  14 figures, 29 tables, Appendices (6) - 18 water quality tables
Tri-Authority (Lower Trent, Moira River, Prince Edward Region)  
  Tri-Authority Rural Beaches Study Program: Year One Summary Report, 1991-1992. (Lower Trent, Moira River, Napanee Region C.A.s) [5543 KB]   23 tables, 87 figures; appendices, 113 p, many water qual. data tables
  Tri-Authority Rural Beaches Study Program (1992-93) (Lower Trent, Moira River, Napanee Region C.A.s)  [1418 KB] 24 tables, 17 figures
  Tri-Authority Clean Up Rural Beaches Program, 1993-94 Annual Report.  (Lower Trent, Moira River, Napanee Region C.A.s) [1520 KB] 9 tables, 13 figures, 8 maps,
Maitland Valley  
Related Huron County Surface Water Quality Data Study: Final Report. Feb. 1999.  S. Bonte-Gelok & D.M. Joy, U. of Guelph  [2788 KB] 20 figures; 30 data tables
  Lake Huron Beaches in the Maitland Valley Watershed Plan (1991).  [862 KB] 7 figures, 6 tables,
appendices, 33p., 25 tables
  MVCA 1993 Annual Report. (1994).  Anne Loeffler & Brent Robinson [344 KB] 17 data tables /w bacteria, nutrient data
Mississippi Valley  
  Mississippi Valley Conservation Authority CURB Plan (1993-94). Laurel Grills
[2045 KB]
8 figures, 13 tables, 7 appendices /w  23 data tables
Niagara Peninsula  
  Binbrook Reservoir Plan (1991).  [565 KB] 6 figures
Related Binbrook Reservoir (Glanbrook Township) Water Quality Assessment and Management Implications (March 1994). A. Gemza. [2820 KB] 25 figures, 6 appendices /w water quality data tables
Nottawasaga Valley  
  Nottawasaga River Watershed Plan (1995)  [728 KB]. Appendices (186 p) [6777 KB] 24 tables, 7 figures; separate Appendices (186 p) monitoring data
Otonabee Region  
  Indian River Watershed Plan (1988).  [2427 KB]  7 tables, 39 figures; appendices - 4 tables, some missing
  Rice Lakes Watershed Plan (1994). [2012 KB] 13 tables, 20 figures, Appendices /w 9 bacterial model data tables, 15 water quality data tables
Raisin River  
  St. Lawrence Beaches Study: 1990 Summary Report. (1991) .Richard Pilon, Rose-Marie Chretien [3424 KB] 73 figures; 3 Apps /w extensive bacterial & chemical data
  Plan for the Finney Creek & Raisin River Watersheds. (1992). Stephen B. Karl [394 KB]  
  Plan for the St. Lawrence River. Raisin River. C.A., 1992. Stephen B. Karl [396 KB]  
  St. Lawrence Beaches Study: Final Report, 1992. Richard Pilon & Stephen Karl.
[2678 KB]
49 figures; 5 appendices /w 28 data tables
Rideau Valley  
  Rideau Valley Rural Beaches Program: Water Quality Study (1990). Terry Davidson [2415 KB] 4 figures, 18 graphs, 10 tables, 7 appendices
  Clean Up Rural Beaches (CURB) Plan for the Rideau River Watershed (circa 1991-92). Terry Davidson. [2269 KB] 3 figures, 23 graphs, 7 tables
  Rideau Valley Conservation Authority 1994 Annual Report (Yr. III). Terry Davidson, Cheryl Arnott, Peter Van Adrichem [51 KB]   
  Rideau Valley Conservation Authority 1995 Annual Report (Yr. IV). Terry Davidson, Peter Van Adrichem [75 KB]   
Saugeen Valley  
  Saugeen Valley Rural Beaches Impact Study of the Durham Subwatershed: Annual Report, 1999-89. [1250 KB]  
  Clean Up Rural Beaches Plan for the Saugeen Valley. 1992. Janette Smiderle [539 KB] 29 figures, 10 tables
St. Clair Region  
  Implementation Program, Yr 1 Annual Report (1993). Cathy Quinlan. [451 KB]  
  Bear Creek - Perch Creek Watersheds Plan (1992). Cathy Quinlan.  [470 KB] 11 figures, 14 tables,  7 appendices /w data tables
  Implementation Program: Year 2 Annual Report (1994).  Cathy Quinlan. [782 KB] 11 graphs
  Implementation Program: Year 3 Annual Report (1995)  Cathy Quinlan. [319 KB]  
Related The Bear Creek Watershed Water Quality Study, 1988-89.  
Related The Highland Creek Watershed Water Quality Study. 1989-1990.  
Related Manure Sharing Study, 1991-1992.  
Related Pollution Source Identification through Pseudomonas aeruginosa Typing Procedures, 1991.  
Related Water Quality Study Along the Lake Huron Shoreline Between Canatara Berach and Brights Grove. May 1991. Bruce Hawkins, Water resources Assessment Unit [494 KB] numerous data tables of bacteria/nutrient levels
Toronto & Region  
  East Humber River, Centreville Creek, and Bruce Creek watersheds Plan (1991).
[1694 KB]
7 tables, 19 figures, appendices - 28 p, several creek CURB models
Upper Thames River  
  Upper Thames River Rural Beaches Strategy Program (1986). D. Hayman, C. Merkley [1304 KB] 18 figures, 4 water quality tables (bacteria, nutrients)
  Rural Beaches Strategy Program: 1987 Progress Report. D. Hayman, Ted Briggs [2059 KB]  
  Pittock Sub-Basin #2 Watershed: Milkhouse Washwater Discharge Study. 1988.Ted Briggs. [3510 KB]  
  The Ontario Rural Beaches Studies: Implications for Remedial Strategies. (1989).
A. Bos, D. Hayman, UTRCA & D. Draper, Ont. Ministry of Environment [690 KB]
6 figures, 4 tables, Bacteria & phosphorus loads
  Rural Beaches Strategy Program: 1989 Progress Report. Ted Briggs [5523 KB] 22 graphs, 3 water quality data tables
  Fanshawe, Pittock and Wildwood Reservoirs Plan (1991).  [1075 KB] 17 figures, 7 tables, 2 appendices /w data tables
  1992 Annual Report [2638 KB]  
  Broad Environmental Accounting System. (1992) [312 KB]. HSP Inc, & D.W. Draper & Assoc. for UTRCA  
  1993 Progress Report [3244 KB]  
  1994 Annual Report. [4508 KB]  
  Implementation Program: 1995-96 Final Report .  [1408 KB]  
Related Kintore Creek Watershed Study: Background Report. 1984.  
Related Livestock Wastes and Agricultural Drainage- Effects of Water Quality: A Case Study in the Pittock Watershed in Southwestern Ontario. (circa 1984).  
Related Pittock Watershed:  Manure Management and Water Quality Sub-Basin Study. (1984/1985).  
Related Upper Thames River Livestock Manure and Waste Management Program: 1985-1986.  
Related Upper Thames River Livestock Manure and Waste Management Program (circa 1987).  
Related Assessment of the Current Waste Management Practices on Farm Operations in Perth County, Ontario: Final Report, (Dec. 1989)  
Related Agriculture Waste Management Program, Final Report, 1989.  
Related Contamination from Private Septic Systems: 1989-1990 Survey Results. (Feb. 1991)   
Related Agricultural Waste Management Program: Progress Report, 1990  
Related Agricultural Waste Management Program, 1991-92 Final Report.  
Related Agriculture Waste Management Program: 1992-93 Final Report.  
Related The Effects of Livestock Manure Application Methods on Water Quality, Focusing on Nitrogen and Bacteria Transport in Soil: Final Report. (Mar. 1996).    
  Relevant Reports
  Surveillance of Storm Drainage and Effluent Discharge from Federal Properties to the Rideau River, National Capital Area  (1975). L.B. Killoran, M. DeBellefeuille, A. D. Tennant, Environ. Canada  [291 KB]
  Pathogen Issues: The Lake Huron Centre For Coastal Conservation
See also: Availability of Water Quality Information
  Sub-watershed Planning (June 1993) [1308 KB]  Ont. Min. of Environ. & Energy & Min. of Natural Resources.
  State of the Environment: Recreational Water Quality (May 1995). D.L. Burns, J. Reffle, Middlesex-London Health Unit [341 KB]
  Manure as a Public Health Issue: What Accountability and Directions for Livestock Agriculture? A Special Report. The George Morris Centre.  (June 2000). Al Mussell, Larry Martin

Related Links

Conservation Ontario
International Joint Commission on the Great Lakes Basin  (IJC)
Drinking Water Source Protection
(Lake Erie Region)
Other M.O.E. Funded Reports

  1. Stratford-Avon River Environmental Management Project (SAREMP) (1980 - 1984),

  2. PLUARG - Pollution from Land Use Activities  Reference Group (1972 - 1979)

  3. Proceedings of a Workshop on Water Quality & Land Use Activities, Sept. 11-12, 1973, U. of Guelph, Ontario [3419 KB] 

  4. Great Lakes Water Quality Program (Agriculture) (1989 - 1994) Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada; 14 Research Reports.

  5. Targeting Rural Best Management Practices in the Thames River Watershed: Are We Doing Enough? Karen Maaskant, Upper Thames River Conservation Authority;  Managing Watersheds for Great Lakes Benefits: Technical Workshop on Nutrients in the Nearshore, Black Creek Pioneer Village, March 3-4, 2009. [pdf]

  6. Nonpoint Source Pollution Abatement in the Great Lakes Basin: An Overview of Post-PLUARG Developments. (August, 1983).  A Report Submitted by the Nonpoint Source Control Task Force of the Water Quality Board of the International Joint Commission.[726 KB]

  7. Agriculture in the Great Lakes Basin: Farmers Target Non-Point Source Pollution [pdf]. Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Ecosystem.

  8. H2Ontario - Integrated Watershed Management: Navigating Ontario's Future. Symposium Report, May 21-22, 2009. Symposium examined global advances in the field of Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) & explored the evolution of a ‘made-in-Ontario’ approach to ensure that we have a safe, sustainable supply of water today and into the future.

  9. Lake Huron Southeast Shore Newsletter (Summer 2008). Point Clark Beach Association.

  10. A Valuation Of Ecological Services In The  Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem to Sustain Healthy Communities and a Dynamic Economy. (July 2006)  [pdf]. Gail Krantzberg & Cheryl de Boer, McMaster University

  11. “BEYOND THE PIPE”: The Importance of Wetlands and Upland Conservation Practices In Watershed Management: Functions and Values for Water Quality and Quantity (2001) T.S.Gabor et al. [pdf].

  12. Sources and Mechanisms of Delivery of E.coli (bacteria) Pollution to the Lake Huron Shoreline of Huron County. [8400 KB] Interim Report: Science Committee to Investigate Sources of Bacterial Pollution of the Lake Huron shoreline of Huron County. April 8, 2005

  13. An Evaluation of Water Resource Monitoring Efforts in Support of Agricultural Stewardship in Watersheds of the Great Lakes Basin [pdf] (Feb. 2009). Conservation Ontario. Karen Maaskant, Upper Thames River Conservation Authority, and Jo-Anne Rzadki, Conservation Ontario. This report highlights outcomes from the May 2008 workshop and recommendations for water resource monitoring, data sharing, information transfer and communication, as well as funding.

  14. Monitoring of Trends in Rural Water Quality in Southern OntarioEnvironmental Commissioner of Ontario. In the 1997 ECO annual report, ECO found significant weaknesses in several of the province’s monitoring programs and, as a result, shortcomings in the provincial ability to track and report on the state of our ecosystems. Since then, there have been some gains, but also some losses.

  15. Watershed Characterization: Ausable Bayfield Maitland Valley Source Protection Region (Mar. 2008) [814 KB]. Draft version. It is the aim of this document to compile information on the physical, sociological and economic characteristics of the Ausable Bayfield Maitland Valley watersheds.

  16. Phosphorus Loading to Lake Simcoe, 1990-1998: Highlights and Preliminary Interpretation in Historical and Ecosystem Contexts (May 2001) [pdf] .K.H. Nicholls. LSEMS Implementation Tech. Report No. Imp.A.5.

  17. A Decade in the Canadian Heritage Rivers System: A Review of The Grand Strategy 1994-2004. [3501 KB] Barbara Veale, Grand River C.A.

  18. The Economics Of Voluntary Cost-Share Programs: An Analysis Of The Rural Water Quality Program. [pdf] M. Nailor, U. of Guelph thesis, 1999. One of the most common instruments to induce farmers to adopt alternative, more environmentally friendly production practices are voluntary cost-share programs that involve taxpayers sharing in the cost of adopting such practices.

  19. White Paper on Watershed-based Source Protection Planning. (Feb. 2004). Ont. Min. of Environment [pdf]

  20. An Evaluation Of Watershed Management In Ontario: Final Report (1997). Watershed Planning Implementation Project Management Committee (PMC) [pdf].

  21. Watershed Management in Ontario: Lessons Learned and Best Practices [pdf]. The Conservation Authorities of Ontario.



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