Objectives and Expected Outputs
To establish the current state of the art
of Manure/Nutrient Management in North America and Europe by summarizing
the current scientific and applied literature and by identifying pertinent
research projects in other jurisdictions while commenting on their relationship
to the Ontario experience.
A report with a detailed literature review,
bibliography and consensual information as an overview of the present
state of our knowledge, helpful in identification of apparent gaps in
our current knowledge which may be addressed under the Green Plan.
S.S.C. Contract, University
1992-93: $20.0 K
Completed, Available Sept. 1994
This report has been prepared to determine the current state of the art
of manure management in Ontario in relation to concerns in the farm community
and amongst the general public. It is intended to serve as a guide for coordination
of the research, extension and implementation programs needed to overcome
current problems in manure management. A draft report was reviewed by Agriculture
Canada, and this final version takes account of their comments. This version
also includes the results of the assessment of priorities for research made
by the University of Guelph Expert Evaluation Panel for Manure Management
on 17 September 1993.
Following an introductory chapter, a detailed assessment of current knowledge
is presented using a framework that follows manure from the point of excretion
to the point of utilization in crops.
The third chapter presents areas of actual or recently completed research
in Canada. The fourth chapter is a review of three manure systems workshops
held at Woodstock, Port Perry and Kemptville. The workshops were intended
to gather information on the views of the agricultural community on the perceived
problems associated with manure management, and to solicit solutions.
The current knowledge base, together with the on-going research projects
and the input from the agricultural community, provides the basis for identifying
priority needs for research and extension. A prioritized assessment of these
needs is presented in Chapter five.
Twelve key objectives were identified for research and
extension needs on manure management in Ontario over the next five years:
Develop extension packages to assist farmers in making more effective
use of nutrients in manure.
Establish a research program involving engineers, animal scientists,
agronomists, soil scientists and economists to develop a comprehensive framework
by which alternative manure management systems can be compared.
Establish the relation between environmentally safe and most profitable
rates of manure application to cropland, taking account of the method and
timing of applications. This also requires the development of more acceptable
manure application methods in conservation tillage systems.
Develop the means of predicting the composition of the major types of
poultry, pig and cattle manures, based on feeding regimes.
Improve nitrogen application recommendations for different crops based
on a soil N test, taking into consideration the losses of NH3
with different times and methods of manure application.
Develop practical cost-effective methods for managing manure odours from
farm systems. This should include seeking means by which the hazard to human
or animal health from toxic gases, such as H2S, can be relieved
in different manure systems, and developing better engineered and economic
manure management systems that minimize gaseous losses from manure.
Investigate the transformations of manure N following addition to soil
to provide more accurate estimates of the denitrification (NOx gas losses),
mineralization and immobilization processes that are agronomically and environmentally
Investigate and develop the ability to predict the transformations of
manure N during storage and/or composting to characterize the impact on
availability of N to crops, the potential for nitrate leaching, and gaseous
losses of NH3 and NOx, together with CO2
Examine the potential for reducing the nutrient content of manures using
improved feeding programs, including use of feed additives.
Assess on-farm economics of different manure management systems in direct
association with research on storage, application and utilization of manure.
There is a need to assess off-farm costs due to environmental impacts,
but this should not be developed solely with respect to manure management.
However, the information on environmental degradation associated with alternative
manure management systems must be quantified to allow the costs to be determined.
Develop the means by which the deterioration of livestock facility structures
by gases produced from manure can be minimized.
May 16, 2011 03:05:08 PM