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Technology Transfer Sub-Program


Exploring Options for the Transfer of Technology from
The Canada-Ontario Agricultural Green Plan:

Final Report of the Technology Transfer Committee

 

Final Report - "Exploring Options for the Transfer of Technology from The Canada-Ontario Agricultural Green Plan" [97 KB pdf]

Authors: The Technology Transfer Committee of the Canada-Ontario Agricultural Green Plan
Editor: Mr. David T. Morris
1. Executive Summary
2. Introduction
3. Background
4. Terms of Reference
5. Technology Transfer Committee Activities
6. Table 1: Technology Transfer Committee Projects and TTC Objectives They Addressed
7. Project Objectives and Contributions to Committee Objectives
8. Development of an Agricultural Information Integration and Exchange System
9. Internet Pilot Project: Green Plan Home Page
10. Best Management Practices Web Site Feasibility Study
11. Marketing and Distribution of Publicly Developed Software Applications:
Electronic Publication 75 Pilot Project
12. Best Management Practices on CD-ROM
13. Technology Transfer Partnerships in Environmental Enhancement: Best Management Practices Pilot Project
14. An Approach to Technology Transfer Within the Canada-Ontario Green Plan
15. Transfer of Agricultural Technology Generated Through the Canada-Ontario Green Plan
16. Technology Transfer Systems Integration
17. Green Plan Technology Transfer Workshop
18. Final Green Plan Workshop
19. Green Plan Summary Bulletin
20. Green Plan Media Releases
21. Appendix A: Membership of the Green Plan Technology Transfer Committee
22. Appendix B: Summaries of TTC Research or Development Projects
  #1 Development of an Agricultural Information Integration and Exchange System
  #2 Internet Pilot Project: Green Plan Home Page
  #3 Best Management Practices Web Site Feasibility Study
  #4 Marketing and Distribution of Publicly Developed Software Applications: Electronic Publication 75 Pilot Project
  #5 Best Management Practices on CD-ROM
  #6 Technology Transfer Partnerships in Environmental Enhancement: Best Management Practices Pilot Project
  #7 An Approach to Technology Transfer Within the Canada-Ontario Green Plan
  #8 Transfer of Agricultural Technology Generated Through the Canada-Ontario Green Plan
  #9 Technology Transfer Systems Integration
 

 

Executive Summary

Background

The Technology Transfer Committee (TTC) was formed in 1994, by the Agreement Management Committee of the Canada-Ontario Agricultural Green Plan, to address concerns related to the transfer of technology and information resulting from Green Plan.

The goal of the TTC was to work, in co-operation with the existing systems for technology transfer in Ontario, to help ensure that the environmentally sustainable agricultural technology, generated within Green Plan, was effectively and efficiently transferred to Ontario farmers and to the wider community.

Activities

Towards this end, the TTC liaised with those who transfer technology to Ontario farmers to inform them of the type of information being generated within Green Plan; to determine their needs with respect to the type of information required and the manner in which it would be best transferred; and to identify opportunities for the development of partnerships to facilitate the continuing transfer of information to Ontario farmers.

In co-operation with Green Plan program leaders, the TTC prepared an inventory of the information that would be available for transfer, and identified the linkages among the results from the Green Plan projects and other related sources of information.

The committee undertook to demonstrate, evaluate and recommend the most appropriate processes to transfer sustainable technology to the Ontario agricultural sector.

The TTC initiated thirteen projects, each designed to advance one or more of the committee's objectives. These projects spanned a range of activities to investigate the application of new communication technologies for transferring agricultural information or to facilitate the exchange of information among stakeholders.

The results of these projects are presented in this report in summary form. The reports were prepared on behalf of the TTC solely for its use. The views expressed by the authors do not necessarily reflect the position of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, The Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, or the Technology Transfer Committee. Individual copies of complete reports can be obtained from persons who were members of the Technology Transfer Committee.

What We've Learned

The following observations are offered by the Technology Transfer Committee, based on information and experience gained through the projects that it sponsored. We hope that they will be of value to people who may be involved in the planning of research and development programs or of technology transfer programs in Ontario, in the future.

Scheduling of Technology Transfer Activities

Throughout its existence the TTC was frustrated by the fact that results of research and development projects would not become available for transfer until after the termination of Green Plan, with the result that there was no funding to support transfer of the new information generated within the program. The TTC strongly believes that the original design of research and development programs in the future must provide sufficient time and funding to allow for transfer of their results.

Specifically, we believe that the technology transfer component of future programs should address the following.

  • The goals and objectives of the technology transfer component must be clearly defined at the outset, along with the roles and responsibilities of the agencies and persons involved.
  • The technology transfer component should be fully integrated with the program's communications component.
  • Sufficient time must be allowed between the deadline for receipt of final project reports and the expiration of program funding to allow for the transfer of the technology generated by the program to the target audience.
  • Sufficient funding must be allocated for the purpose of technology transfer, (minimum of 10% of the funding for the program depending on the nature of the program).
  • Expectations for local and provincial technology transfer(1) activities should be described in the Request for Proposals for all program components.
  • Program technology transfer activities should be integrated with those of related programs and existing technology transfer channels.
  • Technology transfer activities should be coordinated on a province-wide basis.
Patterns of Information Flow

Agricultural information in Ontario now flows in very complex patterns, involving a diversity of individuals, organizations (both public and private; profit and non-profit), media, technologies and target audiences. Technology transfer systems need to be designed to deal with this complexity.

Market Research

Technology transfer is now driven by the demands of the clientele. To successfully reach the target audience, technology transfer activities must meet both the audience's needs for information and its expectations regarding delivery vehicle. Prior to initiating design or development of any communication product, it is essential that market research be conducted into the potential audience(s), and into the nature of the proposed transfer media and associated industries, to determine the market potential and the most appropriate media to transfer technology to the specific audience.

Evaluation of New Communication Technologies

Communication technologies are evolving rapidly. New developments in electronic information management and communications need to be evaluated continually to determine their potential use in the process of transferring agricultural technology.

Full Cost Accounting of Technology Transfer Activities

On the surface, a number of the newer methods of distributing information electronically appear to offer significant savings in costs over traditional methods. However, such estimates often overlook the staffing costs associated with providing the subject matter expertise required to design, develop and maintain such transfer methods. In order to ensure that the product will be a cost effective means of transferring information to the target audience, relative to other communication methods, the full costs of proposed new technology transfer processes (design, development, production, distribution, maintenance and support) should be assessed before design or development is initiated.

Integrated Production and Distribution

For a variety of reasons, many Ontario farmers will continue to need to receive information through traditional technology transfer channels. The production and distribution of documents through electronic media should be integrated with traditional transfer methods to minimize production costs.

Commercial Sponsorships

Opportunities exist to support the production and distribution of information resource materials through sponsorships from agricultural businesses, providing that a plan to properly market commercial sponsorship is developed. Currently, the agricultural sector is fragmented and highly competitive in its approach to seeking sponsorships. A more coordinated approach throughout the sector could result in larger and more sustainable funding.

Introduction

The Green Plan Technology Transfer Committee (TTC) was established to deal with concerns related to the transfer of technology and information resulting from the Canada-Ontario Green Plan. The TTC had broad representation from the agricultural and rural communities and added members as the need arose.

The TTC initiated a range of activities related to technology transfer, including research, development, liaison and facilitation. This report summarizes the various projects and activities associated with the TTC as they relate to its terms of reference.

The information in this report falls into four main categories:

1. Description of the Technology Transfer Committee, its Terms of Reference, methods of operation, and membership.

2. Projects and activities of the TTC, including project objectives and contributions to committee objectives listed in the Terms of Reference.

3. Summary and observations.

4. Summaries of research or development projects (with contacts for more information).

Background

The Canada-Ontario Agricultural Green Plan was developed to encourage and assist the farmers of Ontario to implement environmentally sustainable farming practices. Technology transfer was a major component of Green Plan, through its sub-programs, including the Environmental Farm Plan, Rural Conservation Clubs, Wetlands/Woodlands/Wildlife, The Stewardship Information Bureau and the Best Management Practices books. These programs have made valuable contributions toward assisting farmers to evaluate and adopt previously existing technology. However, from the outset of Green Plan, there were a number of unresolved questions relating to the transfer of new information arising from Green Plan activities.

The TTC, was formed by the Agreement Management Committee of Green Plan (AMC) in 1994. Initially, AMC appointed an ad hoc group, consisting of three members of that committee, to address concerns related to the transfer of the information generated within the various programs of Green Plan. As the responsibilities of TTC evolved over time and the complexities of its tasks became apparent, its membership was gradually increased to provide representation from a wider range of interests and a broader range of expertise. (See Appendix A for membership details.)

A system to transfer information to farmers and other sectors of the agricultural industry is well established in Ontario and has served the industry well. However, members of AMC raised concerns regarding several specific gaps in that system relative to the transfer of information arising from Green Plan. The following issues required clarification:

The relative priority for transfer to be assigned to the three types of information(2) that was anticipated and to specific subject matter areas.

The process for evaluation of project results and assessment of their practical application.

The appropriate target audiences for each type of information.

The appropriate communication channels for each audience and type of information.

The TTC was charged with the task of assessing the nature of the information that was expected to become available from Green Plan activities with specific reference to the following issues:

options for evaluating the information.

preferred methods for transferring this information.

the respective roles of Green Plan program managers, the agencies represented on the Canada-Ontario Environmental Sustainability Accord (COESA) and the private sector, with respect to the evaluation, summarization, integration and/or distribution of the information and subsequent recommendations for farmers.

Terms of Reference

Goal of the Technology Transfer Committee

To work, in co-operation with the existing systems for technology transfer in Ontario, for the benefit of the agriculture and food industry in Ontario, by ensuring that information related to sustainable technology for agriculture, generated by Green Plan-funded research and demonstration projects, and related programs, is effectively and efficiently transferred to Ontario farmers and to the wider community.

Objectives
  1. Liaise with those who transfer technology to Ontario farmers to:
    • determine the needs of those who transfer technology to Ontario farmers, with respect to both the type of information required and the manner in which it will be best transferred (workshops, surveys, literature reviews and personal contact).
    • inform those involved in transferring technology to Ontario farmers of the type of information being generated within Green Plan, through workshops, reports and personal contact.
    • identify and develop opportunities, within existing systems for technology transfer, for the development of partnerships among governments, agribusinesses, producers and others, to facilitate the continuing transfer of information to Ontario farmers.
    • identify barriers to the transfer of technology within existing and emerging systems.
  2. Liaise with Green Plan program leaders to:
    • prepare an inventory of the information that will be available for transfer.
    • identify linkages among results from the Green Plan programs and projects, as well as other related sources of information..
    • develop guidelines for the reporting of Green Plan project results to facilitate their transfer to the target audiences.
  3. Demonstrate, evaluate and recommend to the Accord Committee of COESA the most appropriate processes for ensuring the effective and efficient transfer of information related to sustainable technology to the Ontario agricultural sector.
    • evaluate new methods and tools for transferring information.
    • assess the suitability of these technologies for meeting the information needs of Ontario's agricultural sector.
    • identify the types of information and the target audience for which the various communication technologies are best suited.
    • document the process and resources required to implement and maintain technology transfer programs using these communication tools.
Approaches

The Technology Transfer Committee may use any combination of the following:

  • research and development, through third party contracts, initiated and overseen by task teams, appointed by the committee, based on Requests For Proposals approved by the committee.
  • facilitation, by providing forums through which stakeholders can exchange information and develop co-operative programs.
  • technical recommendations regarding possible courses of action for technology transfer.

Membership of the Technology Transfer Committee

  • Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)
  • Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA)
  • Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario Region, Environment Canada (CWS)
  • Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR)
  • Ontario Farm Environmental Coalition (OFEC)
  • Ontario Federation of Agriculture (OFA)
  • Stewardship Information Bureau, University of Guelph (SIB)
Technology Transfer Committee Activities

To fulfill its mandate, the TTC initiated a number of projects, designed to advance one or more of the committee's objectives (See Table 1). Summaries of the research and development projects are presented in Appendix B of this report.

 

Table 1: Technology Transfer Committee Projects and TTC Objectives They Addressed

 

Project

Committee Objective 1:

Liaise with those engaged in technology transfer
(See page 4)

Committee
Objective 2:

Liaise with Green Plan program leaders
(See page 4)

Committee
Objective 3:

Explore methods of technology transfer
(See page 4)

Development of an Agricultural Information Integration and Exchange System   X X
Internet Pilot Project: Green Plan Home Page X X X
Best Management Practices Web Site Feasibility Study X   X
Marketing and Distribution of Publicly Developed Software Applications: Electronic Publication 75 Pilot Project     X
Best Management Practices on CD-ROM   X
Technology Transfer Partnerships in Environmental Enhancement: Best Management Practices Pilot Project X    
An Approach to Technology Transfer Within the Canada-Ontario Green Plan X X  
Transfer of Agricultural Technology Generated Through the Canada-Ontario Green Plan X X  
Technology Transfer System Integration X   X
Green Plan Technology Transfer Workshop X X  
Green Plan Final Workshop X X  
Green Plan Summary Bulletin X    
Green Plan Media Releases X    

 

Project Objectives and Contributions to Committee Objectives

Project: Development of an Agricultural Information Integration and Exchange System

Project Objectives

To test and demonstrate the use of currently available knowledge-based technology to facilitate the transfer of new technology to farmers by:

  • organizing and linking information from different sources and at different levels.
  • developing and implementing efficient procedures to select relevant information.
  • provide easy access pathways facilitating the transfer of new technology to the farmer.

Contribution to Committee Objective 2 (Liaise with Green Plan program leaders):

  • Green Plan research program leaders provided information about the nature and content of the almost 40 individual research projects. This was used to demonstrate a method to integrate research information with the body of existing knowledge and to explore means of selection and exchange of information with the farm community.

Contribution to Committee Objective 3 (Explore methods of technology transfer) :

  • development of a prototype Web site offering a framework of agricultural activities, which encompasses the province's agricultural research and information structure and publications, and offers links to external agencies. The information is organized within topic groupings, using the committees and subcommittee structure of Ontario Agricultural Services Coordinating Committee (OASCC). Users can search for information using a number of methods of information access.
  • development of several small expert systems with hypertext markup language (HTML) interfaces, to assist users in selecting information which is specific to their needs.
  • development of a flexible view capability, designed to produce a user-oriented view of the information, eliminate links which are not relevant, and update the user view as required without affecting the document collections. Characteristics of each document in the system are used to create dynamic views to the system specific to each user.

Deliverables:

Web site where  users can access Agweb or Manure Wizard.

Manure Wizard is a C application, running a small set of rules related to manure production, storage, application and use, that generates a report specific to the user's situation, and a recommendation as to whether or not the user should seek more information.

Weed Assist is a decision support system for weed identification and control recommendations that illustrates how applications such as the electronic version of OMAFRA Publication 75 (EP 75) can be integrated with Internet information transfer.

Report entitled, Providing Environmental Data on the WWW. September 1997. 21 pages

(For a more complete summary, refer to Appendix B.)

 

Project: Internet Pilot Project: Green Plan Home Page

Project Objectives

  • To investigate and document the process required to provide an electronic, one-window, public access to information about the Canada-Ontario Agricultural Green Plan and to the results of Green Plan projects, through establishment of a Green Plan Home Page on the Internet.

Contributions to Committee Objectives 1 and 2: (Liaise with those engaged in technology transfer and Green Plan program leaders )

  • development of a home page design and launching of the Green Plan Web site, providing users with access to background information about the development of the Green Plan, details of the Canada-Ontario Agreements, organizational charts for Green Plan and the Research Sub-Program, the structures and membership of 20 Green Plan committees, general information about Green Plan, details of the eight major sub-programs, summaries and complete text of completed research projects, and links to other related Web sites.

Contributions to Committee Objective 3: (Explore methods of technology transfer)

  • guidelines on several aspects of Web site development, design and maintenance, including: location of documents, identification of document source and ownership, site organization, appearance, accessibility, ease of use, visual appeal and content, use of graphics and other advanced features, readability, currency of information and promotion.

Deliverables:

Green Plan Web Site (http://agrienvarchive.ca/gp/gphompag.html)

Report entitled Internet Pilot Project. March, 1997. 13 pages

(For a more complete summary, refer to Appendix B.)

 

Project: Best Management Practices Web Site Feasibility Study

Project Objectives

  • To determine the potential for development of a privately funded Internet Web site to present Best Management Practices (BMP) information, through investigating the following: considerations for the business model, characteristics of potential users and sponsors, site content and navigational strategies, requirements for site administration and maintenance, and cost.

Contribution to Committee Objective 3 (Explore methods of technology transfer) :

  • identification of features desired by farmers using the Internet for a Web site offering information about environmentally sustainable agricultural practices (specific focus, comprehensive, credible and up-to-date, ease of access and navigation, searchable database, links to other sources of related information, discussion groups, personalized interface, "question and answer" feature, confidentiality of user information).
  • recommended strategies for developing commercial sponsorships for the Web site and for site promotion.
  • recommendations for site design criteria, related to site navigation, information processing and architecture.

Deliverables:

Report entitled Best Management Practices: World Wide Web Site Planning Report.

March, 1997. 36 pages

(For a more complete summary, refer to Appendix B.)

 

Project: Marketing and Distribution of Publicly Developed Software Applications

Electronic Publication 75 Pilot Project

Project Objectives

  • To determine the feasibility of and the procedures for marketing, distributing and supporting publicly developed software, using "Electronic Publication 75" (EP 75) Guide to Weed Control, as a test case, including:
    • determination of the time necessary to bring an application to market.
    • development of a model to predict marketing and distribution costs.
    • development of a model to predict market potential and revenues.
    • listing Critical Success Factors for future software application marketing projects.
    • preparation of a software marketing guide.

Contribution to Committee Objective 3 (Explore methods of technology transfer) :

  • development and evaluation of a process for implementing and supporting the marketing and distribution of publicly funded software applications through test-marketing EP 75.
  • production of guidelines for the development of marketing and distribution plans to effectively bring publicly developed software applications to the marketplace. Six key steps must be addressed in the marketing process: market research, product design, product development, Beta testing, distribution, support and maintenance.
  • marketing plan for EP 75, outlining the activities and time required to achieve each of the six steps, and summary of the experience as a case study. Addenda to the report include a generic copy of the licensing agreement, the registration card and the advertising package.

Deliverables:

Report entitled EP 75: Summary of Research Results. August, 1996. 14 pages

Report entitled Marketing and Distribution of Publicly Developed Software Applications: Final Report. December, 1996. 10 pages

(For a more complete summary, refer to Appendix B.)

Project: Best Management Practices on CD-ROM

Project Objectives

  • To investigate and document the process required to develop interactive multimedia products.
  • to explore the suitability of CD-ROM as a medium for transferring agricultural technology, through production of a prototype CD-ROM of the Best Management Practices (BMP) book, Water Management, and related Environmental Farm Plan (EFP) material.

Contribution to Committee Objective 3 (Explore methods of technology transfer) :

  • design, development and production of an interactive CD-ROM version of the Water Management BMP, containing all of the content of the original book, plus EFP Worksheets and Infosheets, a Glossary and a Legislation Section related to water quality.

  • the following recommendations are offered to assist those considering the development of similar products in the future to help ensure production of a high quality CD-ROM,
    • conduct market research into the potential audience and into the nature of the medium and the associated industry prior to initiating product design or development.
    • ensure that the task team is familiar with the CD-ROM industry prior to initiating product design and development (terminology, platforms, types of suppliers, costs, types of interactivity, etc.).
    • define the product as fully as possible, including the breadth of content and the manner by which it is to be integrated before the Request for Proposal (RFP) is developed.
    • evaluate the full cost of developing, producing, distributing and supporting the product before development is initiated, to ensure that a CD-ROM will be a cost effective means of reaching the target audience, relative to other communication methods.
    • hire an multimedia consultant to facilitate project design and administration, in consultation with the task team. The consultant should be able to help clarify needs, specify competitive costs and value for services, and help choose a suitable supplier.
    • chose a supplier carefully from among those with a proven track record. Virtually no supplier has the combination of experience in producing educational products and technical knowledge of agricultural subject matter. Task team time must be allocated accordingly to compensate for deficiencies.
    • ensure that the task team works closely with the supplier to ensure product quality and mutual understanding of expectations . The task team should apportion tasks with time lines; insist upon quality control points; compare competitive products; inform supplier of revised expectations; and participate fully in product testing.

Deliverables:

Report entitled Best Management Practices: CD-ROM Pilot Project. March, 1997. 7 pages

Prototype CD-ROM entitled Water Management Best Management Practices

(For a more complete summary, refer to Appendix B)

 

Project: Technology Transfer Partnerships in Environmental Enhancement: Best Management Practices Pilot Project

Project Objectives

  • To examine administrative, legal, funding, and control issues, related to the pooling of resources for transferring technology from the research and development level to farmers.
  • To develop and recommend strategies for developing, organizing and funding partnerships to facilitate future transfer of Green Plan funded technology.

Contribution to Committee Objective 1 (Liaise with those engaged in technology transfer) :

  • establishment of commercial sponsorship, from input suppliers in the farm sector, that assisted with development, publication and distribution of six BMP books, amounting to advertising revenue of over $100,000.
  • identification of issues needing to be resolved, to sustain a sponsorship marketing effort:

a) Sponsors require defined distribution (scheduled, targeted, verifiable, and cost effective).

b) The content of advertising suitable for use in technology transfer books often does not fit sponsors' marketing strategies and budgets, which are built around product campaigns.

c) Sponsors need to be involved in product development at the concept stage and thereafter.

d) Market research is needed to characterize the audience, potential sponsors and competitive publications.

e) The opportunity to advertise must be positioned relative to the customers' situation, competitive publications, and the sponsors marketing program.

f) Negotiations will be required to establish the price (value) of such advertising.

g) Sponsorship efforts have to be synchronized with advertisers' budget cycle.

Deliverables:

Report entitled Best Management Practices Partnerships: Marketing Strategy Report. October, 1995. 14 pages

Report entitled Best Management Practices Partnerships: Summary of Marketing Activity. April, 1996. 20 pages

Report entitled Best Management Practices Partnerships: Partnership Marketing Strategy. June, 1996. 30 pages

Report entitled Commercial Sponsorship of Government Publications: Issues and Lessons from the Best Management Practices Partnership Project. April, 1997.

(For a more complete summary, refer to Appendix B.)

 

Project: An Approach to Technology Transfer Within the Canada-Ontario Green Plan

Project Objectives

  • To compile and categorize the projects that were undertaken as part of Green Plan and other programs with similar objectives, since the conclusion of SWEEP, from which technical information was or will be collected.
  • To indicate the linkages among related projects.
  • To recommend improvements to the system of technology transfer in Ontario to promote the transfer and adoption of the information generated from these projects, using the area of manure management as a case study.

Contribution to Committee Objective 1 (Liaise with those engaged in technology transfer) :

  • identification of barriers within the existing system for transferring agricultural technology in Ontario to the effective flow of information or to the adoption of sustainable technologies.
  • indication of the features that would need to be included in an information system to overcome these barriers.

Contribution to Committee Objective 2 ( Liaise with Green Plan Program Leaders) :

  • listing of 187 agricultural/environmental research and demonstration projects that were conducted as part of eleven programs (or sub-programs) since 1987, categorized according to the main environmental issue addressed by the project, using the 23 categories established for the Environmental Farm Plan. Projects related to manure management were further categorized by the manure management strategies which were being investigated to address specific environmental concerns.
  • abstracts of the results of completed projects and the objectives of those still in progress.

Deliverables:

Report entitled An Approach to Technology Transfer within the Canada-Ontario Green Plan . July, 1995. 120 pages

(For a more complete summary, refer to Appendix B.)

 

Project: Transfer of Agricultural Technology Generated Through the Canada-Ontario Green Plan

Project Objective

  • To outline an integrated system for transferring the information and technology within the Canada-Ontario Green Plan, using concerns related to manure management as a case study.

Contribution to Committee Objective 1 (Liaise with those engaged in technology transfer) :

  • identification of gaps in the current information base for manure management.
  • listing of extension resource materials, available in Ontario in 1995, along with an assessment of the topic covered and the level of detail presented in each resource.
  • a review of the system for transferring technology in Ontario, noting areas of concern in light of the identified information needs of farmers in Ontario and current trends in the province, relative to technology transfer.
  • description of the essential features that should be included in a system for technology transfer, noting the implications for those involved in transferring information, and outlining the requirements for maintenance of the information base and the system itself, and for the production of extension resource materials.

Contribution to Committee Objective 2 ( Liaise with Green Plan Program Leaders) :

  • listings of Green Plan research and demonstration projects related to manure management, categorized according to the issues addressed and the OASCC committees to which the results could be forwarded.
  • listings of other recent Canadian research and demonstration projects related to manure management.
  • development of a sample framework for organizing information related to manure management.

Deliverables:

View / Download Report
"Transfer of Agricultural Technology Generated Through the Canada-Ontario Green Plan"   [275 KB pdf]  (February, 1997. 109 pages


 

Project: Technology Transfer Systems Integration

Project Objectives

  • To determine the effectiveness of different communication methods and techniques in achieving a desired level of change in environmentally related behaviours in a target group.
  • To assess the feasibility of developing a manual which will guide technology transfer professionals and managers in the selection of communication methods, techniques and media for technology transfer.
  • To develop such a manual if feasible.

Contribution to Committee Objectives 1 and 2: (Liaise with those engaged in technology transfer and Green Plan program leaders )

  • identification of factors influencing the adoption and continued use of innovative technologies and categorization of the factors according to:
    • the type of behavioural change required (adoption, optional vs. compulsory).
    • characteristics of the target audience (innovativeness, decision-making unit).
    • characteristics of the technology (benefits, compatibility, complexity, testability, observability).
    • characteristics of the media used to promote the innovation (mass media vs. personal, familiarity, accessibility, social networks, change agents).
    • characteristics of the messages used to promote the innovation ("how-to" vs. principle-based information).
  • development of a technology transfer manual for the agricultural community, providing resources to assist users in assessing the characteristics of target groups, and in developing strategies to communicate to those groups using a variety of integrated messages through multiple media.

Deliverables:

Report entitled The Feasibility of a Technology Transfer Manual for the Ontario Agricultural Community. January, 1996. 32 pages

Manual entitled Transferring Technology - A Guide to Communications Planning in the Agricultural Industry. March, 1997. 60 pages

(For a more complete summary, refer to Appendix B.)

 

Project: Green Plan Technology Transfer Workshop

Project Objectives

  • To provide a forum, through a one-day workshop, for communication and information exchange between the people associated with Green Plan and those involved in the administration of agricultural technology transfer in Ontario:
    • to explore opportunities for the transfer of Green Plan generated technology.
    • to increase awareness, among those involved in the administration of agricultural technology transfer in Ontario, of the information being generated within Green Plan.
    • to discuss the changing needs of Ontario farmers with respect to both the type of information required, and the manner in which it can and should be transferred
    • to begin to explore the potential role of partnerships among governments, producers and agribusinesses in facilitating the transfer of information to Ontario farmers.

Contribution to Committee Objectives 1 and 2: (Liaise with those engaged in technology transfer and Green Plan program leaders )

  • The workshop, held December 12, 1995 at the Holiday Inn, Guelph, was attended by 42 people, representing a variety of interests, including government, university, business and producers. Through presentations and discussion groups, it provided a forum for the exchange of information among people associated with Green Plan and representatives of selected stakeholder groups.

Deliverables:

Report entitled Canada-Ontario Green Plan Technology Transfer Workshop. April, 1996. 9 pages

Project: Final Green Plan Workshop

Project Objectives

  • To increase awareness of the information available as a result of Green Plan and to encourage the adoption of the technology developed within Green Plan, through co-sponsoring a wrap-up workshop in conjunction with the Green Plan Research Sub-Program.

Contribution to Committee Objective 1: (Liaise with those engaged in technology transfer)

  • the workshop, held in March, 1997, provided Green Plan program managers with the opportunity to present a summary of the achievements of their programs and to initiate discussion of their application within agriculture. Contractors of projects that were active in 1996 presented a summary of their accomplishments, as did co-operators in selected projects in the Rural Conservation Club and Wetlands/Woodlands/Wildlife sub-programs.

 

Project: Green Plan Summary Bulletin

Project Objectives

  • To increase awareness within the agricultural sector of the range of activities conducted under Green Plan and of the resulting information through production of an 8-page Green Plan Bulletin outlining the progress of the program, sub-programs and selected projects.

Contribution to Committee Objective 1: (Liaise with those engaged in technology transfer)

  • a bulletin summarizing the overall accomplishments of Green Plan and the seven sub-programs, and highlighting the achievement of selected projects within each sub-program was prepared and distributed to over 2000 people, including innovative farmers, farm media and advisory staff in government, university, conservation authorities, and agri-business.

Deliverables:

Bulletin entitled Special Agricultural Green Plan Issue of Innovations. March, 1997. 8 pages

Project: Green Plan Media Releases

Project Objectives

  • To increase the awareness within the agricultural sector of the information available from Green Plan research through production of a minimum of 10 articles, suitable for publication in farm magazines or similar publications, outlining the results of selected projects and their potential application in Ontario agriculture.

Deliverables:

Articles, based on the projects listed below, were prepared and distributed through the communication channels of OMAFRA and AAFC.

  • Impact of Manure Application Methods on Water Quality, Focussing on Nitrogen and Bacteria Transport in Soil
    Discusses the role of macropores in the contamination of tile drain water by liquid manure and outlines the effects of soil moisture content, application methods and tillage; offers management tips to reduce the risk of contamination.
  • Variable Rate Technology for Nitrogen Application
    Explains and encourages the use of check strips to predict optimum nitrogen application rates and the use of yield maps to define application patterns
  • Crop Rotations and Cover Crop Effects on Erosion Control, Tomato Yields, and Soil Properties
    Encourages the use of crop rotation and cover crops in tomato culture by describing the beneficial effects on soil conditions, crop yield and crop quality.
  • Transformations in Soil: Crop Response to Nitrogen in Manures with Widely Differing Characteristics
    Describes the effect of the characteristics of different types of manure on their ability to supply nitrogen to crops and notes implications for application management.
  • Closed Loop Recycling - Composted Biodegradable Organic Urban Waste Application on Agricultural Lands
    Outlines the effects of the application of composted municipal wastes on cropland on crop emergence, growth, yield, pest problems and soil conditions; offers suggestions regarding the appropriate time and method of application, tillage, and the use of fertilizer nitrogen.
  • Assessment of the Influence of Manures for the Control of Soilborne Pests Including Nematodes, Fungi and Bacteria
    Compares the value of different manures for controlling Verticillium wilt and potato scab in potatoes; encourages use of a bioassay to predict the suitability of manures for this use; notes the possible usefulness of this approach in controlling soilborne diseases in other crops.
  • Constructed Wetland Facility (Belle River Conservation Club)
    Describes the design, construction and operation of a three stage wetland facility to dispose of contaminated waters from a dairy operation.
  • Effect of Cover Crops and Reduced Tillage on Nitrogen Management
    Examines the effects of cover crops and tillage systems on nitrogen management and nitrate leaching losses in corn.
  • Management of Streams and Agricultural Drains to Improve Wildlife Habitat
    Draws on the experiences of several Wetlands/Woodlands/Wildlife projects to promote techniques for protecting streambanks in ways that will reduce erosion and improve habitat for fish and other wildlife, while minimizing the conflicts with agricultural activities.
  • Green Plan Summary
    Summarizes the history and accomplishments of Green Plan and the seven sub-programs.

Footnotes:

1. The TTC project report entitled Transferring Technology - a Guide to Communications Planning in the Agricultural Industry describes an integrated approach to developing appropriate technology transfer activities.

2. The AMC noted that the information anticipated from Green Plan projects could be roughly divided into three categories:

  1. that which added to the scientific understanding of the processes through which agricultural activities affect the environment.
  2. that which could be implemented at the farm level almost directly.
  3. that which assisted governments (federal, provincial or municipal) in developing policies or programs related to agriculture or land use.

 

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Last Updated: Wednesday, May 18, 2011 02:54:16 PM