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Land Stewardship II
(LS II)

1990 - 1994


Project Descriptions

Project Number Project Title
LSII 7 Conservation Technology and Practices in the Cultivation of Canola
LSII 22a Soil Conditioning for No-till Systems
LSII 22b Economic Conservation Yield Monitoring Program
LSII 23 No-Till Demonstration Plot
LSII 26 Soil Doctor
LSII 28 Renfrew County Environmental Demonstration Site
LSII 29a Tillage and Yield Study Group
LSII 29c Band Spraying
LSII 29d Rye Cover Crop in Corn
LSII 29e Nitrogen Test Survey
LSII 32 Grey-Dufferin Community Pasture
LSII 35 No-till Demonstrations
LSII 40 Oxford Manure Application Study
LSII 43 Soil Rehabilitation After Land Levelling
LSII 48 Alternate Water Supply
LSII 58 Tillage Requirements for Corn and Soybeans Following Soybeans
LSII 59 Use of Cover Crops for Nitrogen Management
LSII 60 The Impact of Alternative Drainage Methods on Water Effluent Quality and Quantity of Niagara's Concord and Niagara Grapes
LSII 61 No-till Demonstrations and Trials
LSII 63 Band Spraying, Inter-row cultivation, and Sidedress Nitrogen Application for Corn in Eastern Ontario
LSII 65 Evaluation of No-till in Corn and Soybeans
LSII 66 Field Drainage Tile Water Quality Study
LSII 70 Evaluation of a Vegetation Detecting Weed Sprayer
LSII 71 Review of No-till Information for Ontario: Corn, Soybeans, Winter Wheat
LSII 72 Management Practices Supporting Environmental Sustainability for Greenhouse Vegetable Production
LSII 74 Composting Poultry Manure with a Passive Aeration Windrow System
LSII 80 On-farm Demonstrations and Trials
LSII 81 Comparison of No-till Planting Equipment
LSII 87 Cover Crop Management for Vegetable Production
LSII 89 Nitrogen Management for Corn Following Red Clover
LSII 91 Management Practices Supporting Environmental Sustainability for Greenhouse Flower Production
LSII 99 Renfrew Manure Analysis, Sampling & Spreader Calibration Project
LSII 100 Nitrogen Budget of Farms in Huron County
LSII 102 Feasibility of Using Permanent Grass Cover in Vineyards
LSII 105 No-till Equipment for Brookston Clay
LSII 106 No-till Systems for Brookston Clay
LSII 107 Yeoman's Feedlot Cleanup Project
LSII 113 Managing Cover Crops and Tillage to Conserve Nitrogen following Manure Applications
LSII 115 Evaluation of Corn Hybrids under Ridge-till, Zone-till and Conventional Tillage Systems
 
 

Report No: LSII 7

Title: Conservation Technology and Practices in the Cultivation of Canola

Contractor: Ontario Canola Growers' Association

Objectives:

  1. To compare and demonstrate different tillage systems.
  2. To compare harvest methods (swathing vs. direct combining).
  3. To compare the effectiveness of several no-till drills.

Results:

Trials were conducted at two locations in each of 3 years. In general, it was shown that spring canola can be grown successfully using no-till without adverse effect on yields or free fatty acids (FFA). However, it may be necessary to increase seeding rates. Direct combining tended to increase levels of FFA in the seed. In no-till canola, applying fertilizer near the seed did not affect stands, but appeared to reduce yields (non-sig.). With winter canola, no-till resulted in lower yields than conventional tillage.



Report No.: LSII 22a

Title: Soil Conditioning for No-till Systems

Contractor: Essex Conservation Club, c/o Bill Stevens, OMAFRA, Esssex

Objectives:

To investigate the usefulness of the Aerway tillage unit for:

  1. improving water infiltration on Brookston clay and speeding residue breakdown;
  2. bedding tomatoes on sandy loam soil.

Results:

The Aerway unit was tested in one growing season. No measurable differences in crop yield, soil temperature or infiltration were noted. Co-operators felt that the Aerway could be a useful transition tool towards no-till, through improved infiltration, and in partially incorporating cereal residues on dry soil.

Co-operators intend to continue the project after LSII.



Report No.: LSII 22b

Title: No-till Demonstrations

Contractor: East Kent No-till Farmers

Objectives:

To evaluate and demonstrate use of a coulter-caddy system for growing corn, soybeans and winter wheat on sandy soils.

Results:

Over two years, there was little difference in yields between no-till and conventionally planted crops. Estimated economic advantage per acre for no-till over conventional was $30.80 for soybeans, $22.60 for wheat and $16.80 for corn, largely because of reduced cost for tillage. Annual weed pressure was greater in conventional tillage; perennial weeds were worse in no-till.



Report No.: LSII 23

Title: No-Till Demonstration Plot

Contractor: Rondeau Agricultural Conservation Corp

Objectives:

To demonstrate various ways of growing corn and soybeans under no-till conditions.

Results:

Over three years, there appeared to be a slight yield advantage in corn for banding spraying and cultivating, as compared to broadcast spraying. Banding spraying plus cultivation also resulted in a cost savings of about $21.50 per acre per year.

There was little difference in soybean yield between 7.5" and 19" row widths. Soybeans in 38" rows yielded much less.



Report No.: LSII 26

Title: Soil Doctor

Contractor: Middlesex SCIA, c/o Peter Johnson, OMAFRA, London

Objectives:

To evaluate if a unit designed to estimate soil nitrogen "on-the-go" during application of 28% UAN solution could be used to reduce nitrogen usage without a loss in yield.

Results:

Yields obtained from 46 strip plots, over 2 years, where nitrogen was applied at rates determined by the Soil Doctor were compared against those recommended through use of the soil test for nitrate-N and a rate selected by the co-operator based on his or her experience. Results were inconclusive. There was no difference in net returns in 76% of the comparisons. In 19 trials, it was possible to estimate the most economical rate - each system came closest to predicting the most economical rate in about one third of the cases. (data are available for these sites).



Report No.: LSII 28

Title: Renfrew County Environmental Demonstration Site

Contractor: Renfrew SCIA and Claude Weil, Alfred College

Objectives:

To evaluate the effectiveness of a "mound treatment bed" in treating milkhouse waste water in soils with low permeability.

Results:

An experimental system was designed and constructed, consisting of a modified septic tank, a pumping chamber and a peat and sand raised infiltration bed.

An interim report, "Milkhouse Wastewater Management and Treatment" was prepared, containing an extensive literature review, procedures for designing the system, description of the construction and the results of some initial infiltration tests. No information regarding leaching or leakage from the bed was presented in this report, although reference was made to another report in preparation.

A handout describing system, "Milkhouse Waste Management: Experimental Treatment System", was prepared by Claude Weil for a 1991 OMAF Dairy Extension Update.



Report No.: LSII 29a

Title: Tillage and Yield Study Group

Contractor: Lambton SCIA, c/o Gabrielle Ferguson, OMAFRA, Petrolia

Objectives:

Results:

Information was collected regarding the production practices and yield for corn, soybeans and winter wheat, from up to 26 farms over 4 years. Net returns per acre were calculated using standard cost figures. No attempt to summarize the information by year or for the project is included, except to note that as producers on coarse or medium-textured soils, gained experience with reduced tillage systems, they tended to become more profitable than conventional tillage.



Report No.: LSII 29c

Title: Band Spraying

Contractor: Lambton SCIA, c/o Gabrielle Ferguson, OMAFRA, Petrolia

Objectives:

Results:

Results Experiences of 3 co-operators were monitored over 2 years. Band spraying plus cultivation provided acceptable weed control without reducing yields and resulted in a net savings of about $22 per acre. Comments on equipment and adjustments are included.



Report No.: LSII 29d

Title: Rye Cover Crop in Corn

Contractor: Lambton SCIA, c/o Gabrielle Ferguson, OMAFRA, Petrolia

Objectives:

Results:

Rye was over-seeded into standing corn at the 5-leaf stage and was killed with Roundup in the fall; soybeans were seeded no-till in the following spring. Rye appeared to cause no major problems for either the corn or soybeans. Rye caused some suppression of weed growth.



Report No.: LSII 29e

Title: Nitrogen Test Survey

Contractor: Lambton SCIA, c/o Gabrielle Ferguson, OMAFRA, Petrolia

Objectives:

Results:

Experiences of 33 co-operators were monitored over 2 years. The soil test for nitrate-nitrogen was felt to be good for rated the nitrogen level of fields into categories (low, medium, high). Co-operators generally felt comfortable with the rates recommended within about 20 kg of N/ha. The test was less reliable where legume residues or strawy manure were present in the field.



Report No.: LSII 32

Title: Grey-Dufferin Community Pasture

Contractor: Grey-Dufferin Community Pasture, c/o Joan McKinlay, OMAFRA, Markdale

Objectives:

To demonstrate:

  1. ditchbank protection by restricting cattle access with fencing and mid-level crossings and by
  2. reseeding.
  3. alternative means of supplying water to cattle.

Results:

A single strand electric fence, erected on both sides of the drain, was sufficient to prevent cattle access to the drain. Ditchbanks were reseeded with trefoil. Monitoring of re-vegetation of the banks continues.

Beavers plugged the culverts through the low-level crossing causing one approach to the crossing to be washed out in the spring. This type of structure was deemed to be unsatisfactory for sites where beavers may be present.

Concrete watering troughs, supplied with well water, were placed on 3 types of structures: gravel mound covered with asphalt chips; poured-concrete pad and a mound of earth. The latter was as effective as the other structures in keeping the surrounding area dry, for much less cost. A solar-powered system was installed to draw water from the drain. It worked well, even in a cloudy summer, and seems to have enough power to supply more than one trough which would make farm use of the system more economical.



Report No.: LSII 35

Title: Economic Conservation Yield Monitoring Program

Contractor: Essex Conservation Club

Objectives:

To promote sustainable cropping and tillage practices through monitoring on-farm projects.

Results:

Information was collected from farm plots over three years regarding tillage system, pesticide and fertilize use, and crop yield for corn, soybeans and winter wheat.

Net returns per acre were estimated using standard custom work rates and commodity prices. A estimated conservation value was also assigned to each system as a means of evaluating expected environmental benefit from conservation practices.



Report No.: LSII 40

Title: Oxford Manure Application Study

Contractor: Oxford SCIA, c/o Chris Brown, OMAFRA, Woodstock

Objectives:

  1. To evaluate crop response to the application of different types of manure at varying application rates.
  2. To collect information regarding the nutrient contents of different types of manures.
  3. To measure application rates and assess uniformity of spreading patterns.

Results:

Information was compiled on the nutrient contents of 139 samples of manure over a 3 year period. There was little year-to-year variability in the analysis of the manure from an individual storage provided that the livestock ration and management of the system was not changed significantly.

There was little or no response in yield to manure use at most sites, relative to unmanured checks. The large amount of nitrogen in unmanured soil was also confirmed by spring soil nitrate-nitrogen tests. Little nitrate-N tests was present in the soil in the fall, although total N supply applied from "normal" application rates exceeded crop requirements in most cases, especially for liquid hog manure. Data from four experiments indicate the variability in spreading patterns - in general, the application rate close to the spreader was at least double that halfway between spreader paths. Some information illustrating the effect of wind on the spreading pattern from irrigated manure is presented.



Report No.: LSII 43

Title: Soil Rehabilitation After Land Levelling

Contractor: Niagara Peninsula Fruit and Vegetable Growers' Assoc., c/o Maribeth Fitts, OMAFRA, Vineland Station

Objectives:

To demonstrate the benefits of land rehabilitation prior to replanting after land levelling or excavation.

Results:

Plots were established comparing cattle manure, mushroom compost and paper mill waste as soil amendments. Comparison of alfalfa and sorghum-sudan grass as cover crops were superimposed on the main plots.

Eighteen months after application, the nutrient content of the soil receiving any of the amendments were still higher than the controls. Paper mill waste was the least effective in supplying nutrients. Amendments all increased the organic matter content of the soil to about 5.0%, as compared to from 4.5% for the control.

There was no significant difference between the cover crop species on soil properties; their main benefit was in controlling erosion. (Cover crops had to be re-seeded in the second year, so only were present for one growing season.)



Report No.: LSII 48

Title: Alternate Water Supply

Contractor: Dufferin SCIA, c/o Joan McKinlay, OMAFRA, Markdale

Objectives:

To evaluate different systems of supplying water to cattle on pasture.

Results:

A sling pump, powered by water flow in the stream was installed. Velocity of the stream was too low without restricting the width of the channel. Unit seemed to adequate for about 30 head, but nose pumps would have been more cost-effective. A ram pump worked well, but had not been subjected to cold weather at the time the report was written. Installation costs (1993) are included.



Report No.: LSII 58

Title: Tillage Requirements for Corn and Soybeans Following Soybeans

Contractor: Dr. Tony Vyn, University of Guelph

Objectives:

To demonstrate tillage options for corn and soybean production following soybeans while measuring crop yields and potential for soil erosion (through rainfall simulation studies).

Results:

Trials were conducted at four sites in 1992 to compare several tillage systems and planter attachments.

Reduced tillage greatly reduced the potential for soil erosion.

A single pass with a field cultivator in the spring was sufficient tillage for either corn or soybeans No tillage reduced yields of both crops at some sites.

Where planter attachments which only moved crop residues were used, crop yields were somewhat less than where attachments those which loosened the soil were used. There appeared to be no advantage to using attachments with more than one coulter for planting systems.



Report No.: LSII 59

Title: Use of Cover Crops for Nitrogen Management

Contractor: K. Hough, Ontario Corn Producers' Assoc., and T. J. Vyn et al, University of Guelph

Objectives:

To evaluate cover crops and management systems for their potential to absorb soil nitrogen and to release it in a manner which allows it to be used efficiently by the succeeding crop.

Results:

Trials were conducted at 2 locations in 1992-93, comparing red clover, fall rye, oats and oilseed radish with different kill dates and tillage methods. When fertilizer N was applied, cover crops had no effect on yield. Red clover provided significantly more N to the corn crop than any other cover crop. Potential for groundwater contamination under red clover crops in fall or winter did not appear any higher than for bare ground. The spring time test for soil nitrate-N did not adequately predict the nitrogen that was mineralized from red clover residues later in the season. On finer-textured soils, fall tillage tended to result in spring higher nitrate levels relative to no-till.



Report No.: LSII 60

Title: The Impact of Alternative Drainage Methods on Water Effluent Quality and Quantity of Niagara's Concord and Niagara Grapes

Contractor: Ontario Grape Growers' Marketing Board, H.W. Fraser, OMAFRA; K. H. Fisher, HRIO; C. Attema, NPCA

Objectives:

  1. To monitor the quality and quantity of subsurface water draining from a vineyard with 4 drainage treatments (mole drains, 50 mm tile, 100 mm tile and undrained control).
  2. To monitor grape vigour and yields for 5 years.
  3. To evaluate soil compaction in the vineyard.
  4. To assess the economic and environmental impact of each system.

Results:

Drains were installed in 1992. Vineyard performance was variable in 1992, but in 1993, mole drained rows yielded much less than the other treatments. Tile drainage visibly resulted in much improved drainage, relative to the control.

Details of installation methods, water measuring devices, piezometer results, turbidity and nutrient analyses and vineyard performance are presented. Study will continue through 1996.



Report No.: LSII 61

Title: No-Till Demonstrations and Trials

Contractor: North Kent No-till Group

Objectives:

To compare yield, emergence, weed populations and control, residue cover, plant populations and economic considerations of conservation tillage against conventional tillage on variable soils.

Results:

Strip trials were conducted with corn, soybeans and winter wheat on five farms over 2 years. No-till winter wheat yielded as well as conventional.

No-till soybeans yielded about 1.5 bu/ac less than conventional, but because of savings in time and tillage, no-till was more profitable.

No-till corn yielded about 9 bu/ac less than conventional; after adjustment for savings in time and tillage, no-till was less profitable by about $15 per acre. Comments about the effectiveness of various planter attachments and adjustments made to equipment are also included.



Report No.: LSII 63

Title: Band Spraying, Inter-row cultivation, and Sidedress Nitrogen Application for Corn in Eastern Ontario</P>

Contractor: Carleton SCIA, c/o Paul Sullivan, OMAFRA, Nepean

Objectives:

To evaluate the feasibility of band spraying and inter-row cultivation for corn in eastern Ontario.

Results:

Tests were conducted on four farms in each of 2 years comparing broadcast application of herbicides againsted banding plus a variety of cultivation options (one or two cultivations, with or without rotary-hoeing). Over the 2 years, all of the banding plus cultivation treatments provided good weed control and yields equivalent to broadcast applications. Net incomes were higher from any of the banding plus cultivation treatments than from broadcast spraying.



Report No.: LSII 65

Title: Evaluation of No-till in Corn and Soybeans

Contractor: Erie Thames No-Till Innovators

Objectives:

To design, build and evaluate a triple frame modular no-till planter for corn and soybeans.

Results:

A planter equipped with fertilizer boxes and 13 planter units was built and tested over 2 years. Results from test plots comparing corn hybrids, soybean varieties, plant populations or planters are presented.



Report No.: LSII 66

Title: Field Drainage Tile Water Quality Study

Contractor: Eastern Ontario Progressive Farmers Assoc.; Pierre-Yves Gasser, Ag-Knowledge, Ontario

Objectives:

To determine if liquid manure applications on barley stubble adversely affects the quality of water emitted from underlying drainage tiles.

Results:

E. coli counts in tile water increased 10 fold between 16 and 25 hours after spreading of liquid poultry manure. The concentration of ammonia in the water also increased over the same period, going from non-detectable to 2.3 mg/L in 55 hrs.



Report No.: LSII 70

Title: Evaluation of a Vegetation Detecting Weed Sprayer

Contractor: Rondeau Agricultural Conservation Corporation, c/o Jack Rigby, R. R. # 2, Blenheim, N0P 1A0

Objectives:

To evaluate the "Detectspray System" as a means of reducing the amount of herbicide applied in situations of less than complete coverage of soil with weeds.

Results:

The sprayer was tested at 5 locations in 1992-93 in weed infestations ranging from mdoerate to heavy. Reduction in the volume of spray applied ranged from 55% to 25%, respectively. Weed control was satisfactory.

Papers describing operation of the sprayer were presented by Jack Underwood to the Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineers and to the Expert Committee on Weeds - Eastern Section in 1992.

The high cost of the unit ($12,000 in 1992) may limit usage of this technology to operators with large acreages.

Report No.: LSII 71

Title: Review of No-Till Information for Ontario: Corn, Soybeans, Winter Wheat

Contractor: Kent County SCIA, (author: Janice Elliot, Summer Ass't., OMAFRA, RCAT)

Objectives:

Results:



Report No.: LSII 72

Title: Management Practices Supporting Environmental Sustainability for Greenhouse Vegetable Production

Contractor: Ontario Greenhouse Vegetable Producers' Marketing Board

Objectives:

  1. To analyze current greenhouse management practices.
  2. To conduct workshops informing growers about management practices that support environmental sustainability.

Results:

Surveys were sent to 344 growers; 34 valid replies were received. Collection and recycling of nutrient solutions was identified as an area where practices could be improved and where there is a need for information. Many also required information about IPM and recycling or disposal of wastes.

A workshop, attended by 35 growers, was presented. A handout was prepared outlining major environmental concerns for greenhouses, additional references and a environmental audit worksheet.



Report No.: LSII 74

Title: Composting Poultry Manure with a Passive Aeration Windrow System

Contractor: Niagara South S.C.I.A., with Hugh Fraser, OMAFRA and Chris Attema, Niagara Peninsula Cons. Authority.

Objectives:

To evaluate the suitability of the Passively Aerated Windrow System for composting poultry manure.

Results:

The system was tested on a small scale, but larger scale testing did not proceed because the system was impractical and did not produce high quality compost. Placing manure on the aeration pipes was costly and time-consuming. Poultry manure appeared to be too dry to compost properly and the pile reached very high temperatures.



Report No.: LSII 80

Title: On-farm Demonstrations and Trials

Contractor: Electric Reduced Tillage Group

Objectives:

  1. To compare different types and placements of starter fertilizer, in reduced and conventional tillage.
  2. To improve nitrogen fertilizer placement in reduced tillage.

Results:

Results from test plots over two years, comparing starter fertilizers, corn hybrids and tillage systems are presented. Fertilizer placement was enhanced through use of side-knife coulters. The combination of residue managers and unit-mount coulters worked well in clearing residues from the seed row.

Yields were slightly higher in conventional tillage, but reduced tillage was more profitable.



Report No.: LSII 81

Title: Comparison of No-till Planting Equipment for Soybeans

Contractor: South-west Kent No-till Group

Objectives:

To compare the suitability of 3 no-till planters for planting soybeans on Brookston Clay.

Results:

Results from test plots over two years are presented comparing 3 planters for soybean emergence, plant population and yield. Soybeans in 7" or 10" rows outyielded those in 15" rows by about 5 bu/acre. Weed control was much better in the narrower rows.



Report No.: LSII 87

Title: Cover Crop Management for Vegetable Production

Contractor: District 1 and 2, Ontario Vegetable Growers, c/o Anne Verhallen, RCAT

Objectives:

To evaluate a number of practices that should contribute to reduced soil loss and/or improved resource utilization in vegetable production.

Results:

The final report to LSII Report LSII included observations on the following projects listed below. No data was presented.

  • cover crops after processing peas (corn, oats, soybeans,sorghum-sudan grass)
  • partners in nitrogen for tomatoes (3 sites)
  • use of strips of cereals for wind abatement in raised beds (4 planting patterns monitored.)
  • monitoring of irrigation scheduling at 6 sites to validate computer model.
  • starter fertilizer placement study (9 growers)

A literature review, "Conservation Tillage and Wildlife Management: How do they impact one another?", was completed. (based on 16 documents or books) Concludes that wildlife habitat can be improved through conservation tillage and that wildlife can benefit the farming system.



Report No.: LSII 89

Title: Nitrogen Management for Corn Following Red Clover

Contractor: Victoria County S.C.I.A., c/o Neil Moore, OMAFRA, Lindsay

Objectives:

To demonstrate improved nitrogen management, where corn is grown following red clover in conservation farming systems and the soil test for nitrate-N for establishing N rates.

Results:

Trials were conducted at three sites in 1992. Samples for nitrate-N were taken on 5 dates and to both 30 cm. and 6 cm. depths. Three rates of nitrogen were applied (0, N-test, "normal"). (Report does not mention what the actual rates were.) In most cases, check yields were as good as those where nitrogen was applied, especially for whole plant silage.

Soil samples were taken in 1993, but because of mix-ups in applying nitrogen, no yields were recorded. (Co-operators expected to repeat the test in 1994.)



Report No.: LSII 91

Title: Management Practices Supporting Environmental Sustainability for Greenhouse

Contractor: Contractor: Flowers Canada Ontario, Niagara Chapter

Objectives:

  1. To identify greenhouse management practices currently in place or planned, that support environmental sustainability.
  2. To identify grower concerns about the environment.
  3. To identify grower needs for information workshops on environmental relevant to the greenhouse industry.

Results:

Surveys were sent to 280 growers; 46 valid replies were received. Collection and recycling of nutrient solutions was identified as an area where practices could be improved and where there is a need for information. Many also required information about recycling or disposal of wastes. A workshop was presented offering solutions or suggestions for major environmental issues. A handout was prepared outlining the environmental concerns for greenhouses, additional references and a environmental audit worksheet.



Report No.: LSII 99

Title: Renfrew Manure Analysis, Sampling and Spreader Calibration Project

Contractor: Renfrew S.C.I.A., c/o Paul Sullivan, OMAFRA, Nepean

Objectives:

To provide farmers with information regarding the nutrient analysis of the manure from their farms and the rates at which they are applying manure.

Results:

No final report was included in the file.



Report No.: LSII 100

Title: Nitrogen Budget of Farms in Huron County

Contractor: Huron S.C.I.A. & Centre for Land and Water Stewardship, Univ. of Guelph

Objectives:

  1. To demonstrate the influence of crop rotation and tillage practices on nitrogen budgets.
  2. To strengthen the nitrogen survey which accompanied the Farm Groundwater Quality Survey.
  3. To identify potential systems to improve the environmental impact of farming.

Results:

Ten farmers participated in the study. Rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for atmospheric deposition of nitrogen. On average, 18.4 kg N/ha was received.

Soil samples were taken to 80 cm. Each 10 cm. section was analyzed for mineral nitrogen. Available phosphorus was tested in the 0-20 cm. and 30-40 cm. layers. Available phosphorus in the topsoil (0-20 cm.) exceeded 20 mg P/kg in all fields. Subsoil samples were under 10 mg P/kg on cash crop farms, but over 10 on some livestock farms. Total mineral nitrogen in the top 80 cm. ranged between 49.2 and 488.2 kg N/ha in 1992 and 37.0 and 278.3 in 1993. (Values for the N-test, i.e. 0-60 cm. are also presented.) The concentration of nitrate in the soil solution at 80 cm. varied from 0.01 mg N/L to 26.84.

A nitrogen budget was estimated for each farm. The approach used overestimated the concentration on nitrate-N in the groundwater, but could be used to identify those most at risk.



Report No.: LSII 102

Title: Feasibility of Using Permanent Grass Cover in Vineyards

Contractor: Niagara Peninsula Fruit and Vegetable Growers' Assoc., c/o Maribeth Fitts, OMAFRA, Vineland Station

Objectives:

To compare the suitability of newer, less competitive perennial grass cultivars against annual grass systems and bare ground for erosion control and nutrient management in vineyards.

Results:

Perennial grass covers ("Lowgrow" perennial ryegrass and "Supra" bluegrass) did not have an adverse effect on the nutrients available to the grapes, after 2 years of growth, and appear suitable for use in vineyards, at least in the short term.



Report No.: LSII 105

Title: No-till Equipment for Brookston Clay

Contractor: Townline No-tillers Group, c/o Bill Stevens, OMAFRA, Essex

Objectives:

To compare no-till and conventional systems for Brookston clay.

Results:

No data are included in the file. Results apparently were included with Essex SCIA Annual Reports.



Report No.: LSII 106

Title: No-till Systems for Brookston Clay

Contractor: Anderdon No-tillers Group, c/o Bill Stevens, OMAFRA, Essex

Objectives:

  1. To compare no-till and conventional systems for Brookston clay.
  2. To test a PTO ditcher for making ditches in no-till fields.

Results:

No data are included in the file. Results from two years apparently were included with Essex SCIA Annual Reports. Concludes that yields could be maintained with no-till.



Report No.: LSII 107

Title: Yeoman's Feedlot Cleanup Project

Contractor: Napanee Region Conservation Authority

Objectives:

To demonstrate exclusion fencing, mid-level stream crossings and alternate water supply, as ways of reducing contamination of streams by cattle.

Results:

Approximately 2750 ft. of stream bank was fenced with electric high tensile fencing. Trees were planted in the buffer area. A culvert, protected by filter cloth was installed to provide a stream crossing. A pipe, heated by an in-line heater, was installed to supply water to pastures across the stream.



Report No.: LSII 113

Title: Managing Cover Crops and Tillage to Conserve Nitrogen following Manure Applications

Contractor: Perth County Pork Producers, Cattlemen and Milk Committee with Dr. T. Vyn, University of Guelph

Objectives:

  1. To evaluate the ability of various cover crop species to absorb nitrogen from fall applications of manure and to reduce nitrogen losses over winter.
  2. To examine the effect of the type of manure and tillage system on nitrogen conservation and utilization.

Results:

Trials were conducted at two sites in 1992-93. At Sebringville, soil nitrate-N levels in late November were greater where liquid hog manure was applied than where solid dairy cattle manure was used. Both were greater than the check. Because of late planting, cover crops were able to absorb relatively little nitrogen, although concentrations were higher in plants grown in manured plots. In the spring (April 30 and May 20), soil nitrate-N levels were always higher in plots that were fall plowed than in no-till; by June 24, there was no difference between tillage treatments, except where red clover was grown. Fall application of manure did not increase soil nitrate levels until the June 24 sampling date.

At Elora, tillage prior to application of liquid manure did not alter the nitrate-N concentrations in the upper 30 cm. Cover crop growth and total N in biomass were much greater in the manured plots, than in the check plots, but plant N concentrations were not different. Soil nitrate-N levels were significantly higher were there was no cover crop.



Report No.: LSII 115

Title: Evaluation of Corn Hybrids under Ridge-till, Zone-till and Coventional Tillage Systems

Contractor: Kent Corn Producers' Assoc. and Gordon Scheifele, RCAT

Objectives:

  1. To evaluate the performance of recommended corn hybrids (over 2800 CHU) under 3 tillage systems over 3 years. With Dr. H. Hope, Agriculture Canada, to work towards development of a system for screening hybrids to predict their suitability for no-till.
  2. To identify more clearly factors which affect corn performance in reduced tillage systems.

Results:

Trials were conducted at 2 locations over 3 years. There was no significant relationship between coleoptile emergence and final stand or yield. Hybrid by environment interactions were no different under reduced tillage than under conventional. No specific hybrid traits was found to be more important under reduced tillage than conventional. The ranking of hybrid performance was generally the same, regardless of tillage system.

 

Land Stewardship Program

 

 

Created: 7-28-1996
Last Updated:Sunday, May 08, 2011 07:20:11 PM