- G.A. Stewart, T.J. Vyn, Dept. of Crop Science, University of
Guelph, Guelph, Ont.
Evaluation Summary (Tech. Transfer Report Summaries)
View / Download Report in pdf format (61 KB)
Associated SWEEP/LSP Research
Completed: March, 1992
no-till, corn, residue cover, silt loam, loam, planter, coulters,
soil moisture, bulk density, residue-clearing devices, moldboard
plow, yield, crop growth
Field experiments were conducted in 1990 and 1991 on a silt loam
soil at Elora and a loam soil at Woodstock to evaluate various row
crop planter modifications for corn production. The study included
a total of six location/years; three where the previous crop was
grain corn and three where the previous crop had been winter wheat
underseeded to red clover. Experimental treatments examined at each
site included conventional tillage (spring moldboard plow and secondary
tillage) plus a wide range of coulters and residue-clearing devices
mounted on the planter so as to prepare a seedbed without any prior
Soil measurements included surface residue cover, soil macroporosity,
bulk density, soil moisture and penetrometer resistance. Corn crop
response was determined by measuring emergence rates, early season
dry matter production, days to 50% corn flowering and final grain
Results indicated that when winter wheat + red clover was the
previous crop residue removal from the row area was accomplished
more effectively with devices specifically designed for this task
(ie. disc furrowers, spoked wheels, etc.) than when coulters were
used independently. Following grain corn, however, fluted coulters
alone were efficient in removing residue from the row area.
Soil physical property measurements indicated that in the seedbed
(depth: 2.5-7.5 cm) fluted coulters resulted in penetrometer resistances,
macroporosities and bulk densities that were generally not different
from those obtained by moldboard tillage. The strict use of residue
clearing devices resulted in seedbed soil strengths and densities
which were greater than those resulting from the use of fluted coulters
and in some cases slot tillage.
Differences in planting depth variability were generally not
significant, however, the addition of residue clearing devices did
tend to result in more uniform seed placement following wheat +
Early season corn dry matter accumulation generally resulted
in higher values for the conventional tillage system compared to
any other zero-tillage treatment. At some sites there was a trend
for those zero-tillage systems which employed fluted coulters to
result in greater dry matter accumulation than when residue clearing
devices were used.
Differences in grain corn yields were only significant in one
of the six site/years. Following winter wheat + red clover there
appears to be a yield advantage for the use of fluted coulters over
strict residue removal. In general, fairly wide ranging changes
in planting techniques (ie. hand planting, modified zero tillage,
moldboard) did not result in yield differences, perhaps due to generally
above average growing conditions. Results, therefore, should be
interpreted with some caution.
(From Technology Transfer Report Summaries - A. Hayes, L. Cruickshank,
The objective of this study was to evaluate row crop planter
modifications in terms of their effect on seedbed conditions and
corn growth and yield in order to assist producers in selecting
planter attachments for conservation tillage systems.
The study was conducted over two growing seasons on silt loam
and loam soils. The previous crops on the sites were grain corn
and winter wheat which had been underseeded to red clover. The treatments
included moldboard plow, hand planted, slot, disc furrowers (one
or two sets per row), wire brushes, spoked wheels, 2 fluted coulters
(1" or 2"), 3 fluted coulters, coulters + V sweep, coulters + wire
brushes, coulters + spoked wheels and coulters + disc furrowers.
Winter wheat + red clover residue was removed from the row more
effectively with row clearing devices (ie. disc furrowers, spoked
wheels, etc.) than with coulters alone. Following grain corn, however,
fluted coulters alone were efficient in removing residue from the
In the seedbed (depth: 2.5-7.5 cm) fluted coulters resulted in
penetrometer resistances, macroporosities and bulk densities that
were generally not different from those obtained by moldboard tillage.
The use of residue clearing devices alone resulted in greater penetrometer
resistances and bulk densities than fluted coulter measurements.
Although not significant the use of residue clearing devices did
tend to result in more uniform seed placement in winter wheat +
red clover residue.
Corn yields were only significantly different in one of the six
site/years. The difference there showed a yield advantage where
fluted coulters were used in wheat + red clover residue. In general
none of the treatments used resulted in yield differences. This
may have been due to the generally above average growing conditions.
Results therefore should be interpreted with some caution.
The study was well done but required more time for a thorough
investigation of the different modifications. Specific recommendations
could not be made about the different methods examined as they all
resulted in similar yields. These results are contrary to earlier
work done by this researcher where slot planting did not perform
- SWEEP Report #21 - Efficiency of Residue
Management for Providing Optimal Corn Growing Conditions in a Non-Tilled
- SWEEP Report #39 - Report on "Tye-Drill"
Modifications for Sowing Soybeans on Commercial Farms Under No-Till
Future Research: ( ) indicates reviewers suggestion
for priority, A - high, C - low.
(C) This study should be continued on a wider variety of soil types
over several years.
Thursday, May 19, 2011 03:16:31 PM