- G. Scheifele, Ridgetown College of Agricultural Technology,
Ridgetown, Ont., J. Rigby, Blenheim Ont., and D. Smith, Thamesville Ont.,
(Farmer Cooperators) and H. Hope, Plant Research Centre, Agriculture Canada,
(Tech. Transfer Report Summaries)
View / Download Final Report
[104 KB pdf] (appendix not included)
Completed: June, 1992
corn hybrids, tillage, conservation tillage, no-till,
residue, soil moisture, soil temperature, time to coleoptile emergence,
yield, cold tolerance, ridge till, crop growth
Various forms of mulch tillage systems, whether minimum,
no-till (zone-tillage) or ridge-till, have increased rapidly in acreage
across southwestern Ontario for corn production. Increased surface residue
cover at planting time and earlier planting have been associated with both
cooler seedbed environments and slower soil warming which have been shown
to delay seed germination, emergence and crop development. It has been suggested
that in a conservation tillage system uniquely different environmental stresses
exist, requiring corn hybrids with attributes uniquely different from those
for conventional tillage systems. Currently all of the O.C.C. corn performance
trial data is collected from conventional tillage systems insuring natural
environmental stresses be maintained at a minimum.
(From Technology Transfer Report Summaries - A. Hayes, L. Cruickshank,
Research from U.S.A. and Ontario has suggested that corn
hybrids which perform well in conventional tillage systems may not perform
satisfactorily under conservation tillage systems associating this difference
to stresses due to increased residue and colder seedbed environment. Preliminary
studies supported by TED and conducted by P.R.C. (Hope and Maamari) suggest
the potential of developing a cold tolerance predictor for field emergence
under conservation tillage management systems using the time to production
of a 1 cm coleoptile under laboratory controlled cold (11° C until 1 cm
coleoptile growth occurred) conditions.
The research reported in this report was initiated in
1991 at R.C.A.T. as a minimum 2-year study in co-operation with two local
conservation tillage farming systems, Douglas Smith (ridge/strip) and Jack
Rigby (zone-till). Fifty-eight corn hybrids from 18 seed companies were
selected from the O.C.C. performance list which ranged from 2850 CHU to
3400 CHU and indexed 100 or better for yield in 1989 and 1990 O.C.C. performance
trials. The hybrids were grouped into 3 maturity trials. Twenty-six in Early
Season (2850-3050 CHU); 12 in Full Season (3075-3200 CHU); and 20 in Late
Season (3300-3425 CHU). Each conservation tillage trial is being compared
to the trial planted adjacent in a conventional tillage system. Seed from
the same seed lot of each hybrid tested was made available to Hope at P.R.C.
for cold tolerance predictor determination studies and also stored for 1992
field testing. Measured variables were: residue density, soil moisture,
soil temperature, air temperature, time to coleoptile emergence, time to
development of V-1 to V-5 leaves, percent emergence at V-3, percent final
stand at harvest, days to 50% pollen shed and silk emergence, percent broken
stalks, harvest grain moisture and grain yield.
The 1991 data is summarized within this report. The spring
and early summer growing conditions for 1991 were unusually hot and dry
failing to produce the required conditions to evaluate cold tolerance for
emergence and early growth data. Consequently, the study will need to be
continued a minimum of 2 more years (1992 and 1993) before field emergence
data can be used to verify the usefulness of the Hope cold tolerance predictor
for field emergence. The field data in this report is only one year's data
from a very unusual growing season. This is considered a preliminary progress
report and conclusions must not be made from such unusual and limited data.
The study is in progress for 1992 and 1993 with partial
funding for 1993. In 1992, 28 new hybrids have been added for the field
evaluation in separate trials under all four tillage systems. Seed from
the same seed lots of these hybrids was sent to Hope at P.R.C. for cold
This study presents one year's data from a study that is
to continue for another 2 years. Fifty- eight corn hybrids from 18 seed
companies were selected from the Ontario Corn Committee performance list
and grown in side-by-side no-till/ridge till versus conventional till plots.
Seed from each seed lot tested was made available to Dr. H. Hope for cold
tolerance predictor determination studies. Variables measured in this study
included: % residue, soil moisture, soil temperature, air temperature, time
to coleoptile emergence, time to development of V-1 to V-5 leaves, percent
emergence at V-3, percent final stand at harvest, days to 50% pollen shed
and silk emergence, percent broken stalks, harvest grain moisture and yield.
The 1991 data is summarized in this report but because
of the hot, dry growing conditions the required conditions needed to evaluate
cold tolerance for emergence and early growth did not occur making it difficult
to draw any conclusions. Two more years of data will be needed before drawing
any conclusions or making recommendations.
This research has the potential to be very useful but as
mentioned in the report more data is needed to make any recommendations.
Correlation of the field trials to the lab tests are very important because
hybrids could be removed from the recommended list before a field test could
- SWEEP Report #22 - Field Emergence
Predictors for Grain Corn Under No-Till Management
- SWEEP Report #56 - Yield Reduction
Effects of Crop Residues in Conservation Tillage
Future Research: ( ) indicates reviewers
suggestion for priority, A - high, C - low.
(A) Continue this study for another 2 years and correlate
it to Dr. H. Hope's laboratory work to develop recommendations for corn
hybrid selection for no-till growing conditions.
Thursday, May 19, 2011 04:20:01 PM